New papers: Journal of Psychosomatic Research March 10 edition and In Press

New papers: Journal of Psychosomatic Research March 10 edition and In Press

Post #27 Shortlink: http://wp.me/pKrrB-Dv

At the time of writing, the co-editor of Journal of Psychosomatic Research is Francis Creed.  Professor Creed is a member of the APA’s DSM-5 Somatic Symptom Disorder Work Group and had been a member of the Conceptual Issues in Somatoform and Similar Disorders (CISSD) Project. (See Footnotes [1] and [2])

There are currently a number of new papers and In Press papers on the website of Journal of Psychosomatic Research on “Chronic fatigue syndrome” and the so-called “functional somatic syndromes (FSS)”; fibromyalgia (which is referred to in the paper as “chronic widespread pain”); irritable bowel syndrome; so-called “medically unexplained somatic symptoms”; somatoform disorders; the proposed new DSM-5 category Complex Somatic Symptom Disorder and the Conceptual Issues in Somatoform and Similar Disorders (CISSD) example criteria (Table 2).

Image Source: Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine, Nevada, November ‘09 Annual Meeting slide presentation, Francis Creed, MD, FRCP: Can We Now Explain Medically Unexplained Symptoms? See this posting for slide presentation

There is a new MUS paper by Hilbert, Rief et al published in the March ’10 edition.

There are also In Press papers by White (CFS: One discrete syndrome or many? FSSs); Knoop, Prins, Moss-Morris, Bleijenberg (Central role of cognitive processes in the perpetuation of chronic fatigue syndrome); Voigt, Löwe et al (Systematic review of somatoform disorder diagnoses and suggestions for future classification, DSM-5 and proposed new category CSSD, CISSD Project: Kroenke, Sharpe, Sykes: example criteria); Escobar et al (3 or more concurrent somatic symptoms predict psychopathology and service use); Ladwig, Henningsen, Creed et al (Screening for multiple somatic complaints); Cella and Chalder (Measuring fatigue) .

Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Volume 68, Issue 3, Pages 219-316 (March 2010)

http://www.jpsychores.com/home

March 2010 issue

Patients with medically unexplained symptoms and their significant others: Illness attributions and behaviors as predictors of patient functioning over time, 10 December 2009
Anja Hilbert, Alexandra Martin, Thomas Zech, Elisabeth Rauh, Winfried Rief
pages 253-262
Abstract | Full Text | Full-Text PDF (161 KB)

http://www.jpsychores.com/article/S0022-3999(09)00375-4/abstract

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Articles in Press
http://www.jpsychores.com/inpress

Chronic fatigue syndrome: Is it one discrete syndrome or many? Implications for the “one vs. many” functional somatic syndromes debate
In Press Corrected Proof, Available online 18 March 2010
Peter D. White
Journal of Psychosomatic Research
DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2010.01.008
Abstract | Full Text | Full-Text PDF (110 KB)

http://www.jpsychores.com/article/S0022-3999(10)00013-9/abstract

Chronic fatigue syndrome: Is it one discrete syndrome or many? Implications for the “one vs. many” functional somatic syndromes debate
Peter D. White

Received 10 November 2009; received in revised form 12 January 2010; accepted 14 January 2010. published online 18 March 2010.
Corrected Proof

Abstract
There is a current debate as to whether “functional somatic syndromes” (FSSs) are more similar to or different from each other. While at the same time, there is evidence of heterogeneity within single syndromes. So, it could be that these syndromes are all part of one big process/illness, are discrete in their own right, or that they are heterogeneous collections of different illnesses lumped together by common symptoms but separated by uncommon pathophysiologies. The example of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is instructive. There is evidence to support all three models of understanding. Three recent large studies have suggested that FSSs are both similar and dissimilar at the same time. The solution to the debate is that we need to both “lump” and “split.” We need to study both the similarities between syndromes and their dissimilarities to better understand what we currently call the FSSs.

Keywords: Functional somatic syndromes, Chronic fatigue syndrome, heterogeneity, homogeneity, risk markers

Wolfson Institute of Preventive Health, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK Department of Psychological Medicine, St Bartholomew’s Hospital, London,
EC1A 7BE, UK. Tel.: +44 207 601 8108; fax: +44 207 601 7097.
PII: S0022-3999(10)00013-9
doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2010.01.008

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Articles in Press
http://www.jpsychores.com/inpress

The central role of cognitive processes in the perpetuation of chronic fatigue syndrome
In Press Corrected Proof , Available online 17 March 2010
Hans Knoop, Judith B. Prins, Rona Moss-Morris, Gijs Bleijenberg
Journal of Psychosomatic Research
DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2010.01.022
Abstract | Full Text | Full-Text PDF (122 KB)

http://www.jpsychores.com/article/S0022-3999(10)00063-2/abstract

The central role of cognitive processes in the perpetuation of chronic fatigue syndrome
Hans Knoop a, Judith B. Prins b, Rona Moss-Morris c, Gijs Bleijenberg d

Received 8 November 2009; received in revised form 26 January 2010; accepted 26 January 2010. published online 17 March 2010.
Corrected Proof

Abstract

Objective
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is considered to be one of the functional somatic syndromes (FSS). Cognitions and behavior are thought to perpetuate the symptoms of CFS. Behavioral interventions based on the existing models of perpetuating factors are quite successful in reducing fatigue and disabilities. The evidence is reviewed that cognitive processes, particularly those that determine the perception of fatigue and its effect on behavior, play a central role in the maintenance of symptoms.

Method
Narrative review.

Results
Findings from treatment studies suggest that cognitive factors mediate the positive effect of behavioral interventions on fatigue. Increased fitness or increased physical activity does not seem to mediate the treatment response. Additional evidence for the role of cognitive processes is found in studies comparing the subjective beliefs patients have of their functioning with their actual performance and in neurobiological research.

Conclusion
Three different cognitive processes may play a role in the perpetuation of CFS symptoms. The first is a general cognitive representation in which fatigue is perceived as something negative and aversive and CFS is seen as an illness that is difficult to influence. The second process involved is the focusing on fatigue. The third element is formed by specific dysfunctional beliefs about activity and fatigue.

Keywords: Chronic fatigue syndrome, Functional somatic syndromes, Perpetuating factors, Treatment studies, Cognitive processes, Perception

a Expert Centre Chronic Fatigue, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
b Department of Medical Psychology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
c School of Psychology, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom
d Expert Centre Chronic Fatigue, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

Corresponding author. Expert Centre Chronic Fatigue, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Postbox 9011 , 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Tel.: +31 24 3610042; fax: +31 24 3610041.

This article was written while the first author was a visiting staff member of the School of Psychology at the University of Southampton. The working visit was made possible by a grant of the Dutch MSresearch fund (Stichting MSresearch).

PII: S0022-3999(10)00063-2
doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2010.01.022

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Articles in Press
http://www.jpsychores.com/inpress

Towards positive diagnostic criteria: A systematic review of somatoform disorder diagnoses and suggestions for future classification
In Press Corrected Proof , Available online 15 March 2010
Katharina Voigt, Annabel Nagel, Björn Meyer, Gernot Langs, Christoph Braukhaus, Bernd Löwe
Journal of Psychosomatic Research
DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2010.01.015
Abstract | Full Text | Full-Text PDF (183 KB)

Abstract
http://www.jpsychores.com/article/S0022-3999(10)00020-6/abstract

Towards positive diagnostic criteria: A systematic review of somatoform disorder diagnoses and suggestions for future classification
Katharina Voigta 1, Annabel Nagel a1, Björn Meyer a, Gernot Langs b, Christoph Braukhaus b, Bernd Löwe a
Received 1 November 2009; received in revised form 12 January 2010; accepted 14 January 2010. published online 15 March 2010.
Corrected Proof

Abstract

Objectives
The classification of somatoform disorders is currently being revised in order to improve its validity for the DSM-V and ICD-11. In this article, we compare the validity and clinical utility of current and several new diagnostic proposals of those somatoform disorders that focus on medically unexplained somatic symptoms.

Methods
We searched the Medline, PsycInfo, and Cochrane databases, as well as relevant reference lists. We included review papers and original articles on the subject of somatoform classification in general, subtypes of validity of the diagnoses, or single diagnostic criteria.

Results
Of all diagnostic proposals, only complex somatic symptom disorder and the Conceptual Issues in Somatoform and Similar Disorders (CISSD) example criteria reflect all dimensions of current biopsychosocial models of somatization (construct validity) and go beyond somatic symptom counts by including psychological and behavioral symptoms that are specific to somatization (descriptive validity). Predictive validity of most of the diagnostic proposals has not yet been investigated. However, the number of somatic symptoms has been found to be a strong predictor of disability. Some evidence indicates that psychological symptoms can predict disease course and treatment outcome (e.g., therapeutic modification of catastrophizing is associated with positive outcome). Lengthy symptom lists, the requirement of lifetime symptom report (as in abridged somatization), complicated symptom patterns (as in current somatization disorder), and imprecise definitions of diagnostic procedures (e.g., missing symptom threshold in complex somatic symptom disorder) reduce clinical utility.

Conclusion
Results from the reviewed studies suggest that, of all current and new diagnostic suggestions, complex somatic symptom disorder and the CISSD definition appear to have advantages regarding validity and clinical utility. The integration of psychological and behavioral criteria could enhance construct and descriptive validity, and confers prospectively relevant treatment implications. The incorporation of a dimensional approach that reflects both somatic and psychological symptom severity also has the potential to improve predictive validity and clinical utility.

Keywords: Classification, Diagnosis, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, International Classification of Diseases, Somatoform disorders, Validation studies as topic

a Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf and Schön Klinik Hamburg-Eilbek, Hamburg, Germany
b Medical and Psychosomatic Hospital Bad Bramstedt, Bad Bramstedt, Germany
Corresponding author. Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany. Tel.: +49 40 7410 59733; fax: +49 40 7410 54975.
1 Both authors contributed equally to this paper.
PII: S0022-3999(10)00020-6
doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2010.01.015
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Articles in Press
http://www.jpsychores.com/inpress

Whether medically unexplained or not, three or more concurrent somatic symptoms predict psychopathology and service use in community populations
In Press Corrected Proof , Available online 17 February 2010
Javier I. Escobar, Benjamin Cook, Chi-Nan Chen, Michael A. Gara, Margarita Alegría, Alejandro Interian, Esperanza Diaz
Journal of Psychosomatic Research
DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2010.01.001
Abstract | Full Text | Full-Text PDF (129 KB)

http://www.jpsychores.com/article/S0022-3999(10)00006-1/abstract

Whether medically unexplained or not, three or more concurrent somatic symptoms predict psychopathology and service use in community populations

Javier I. Escobar, MD ab, Benjamin Cook, PhD c, Chi-Nan Chen, PhD c, Michael A. Gara, PhD abd, Margarita Alegría, PhD c, Alejandro Interian, PhD ab, Esperanza Diaz, MD e

Received 6 May 2009; received in revised form 20 December 2009; accepted 5 January 2010. published online 17 February 2010.
Corrected Proof

Abstract

Objectives
To examine the frequency of somatic symptoms in a community population of various ethnic backgrounds and to identify correlates of these symptoms such as psychopathology, use of services, and personal distress.

Methods
Using a 14-symptom inventory with interviewer probes for somatic symptoms, we determined the presence of general physical symptoms (GPS) in a sample of 4864 white, Latino, and Asian US community respondents. Medically “edited” verbatim interview responses were used to decide whether or not physical symptoms would qualify as medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS). We then assessed the association between GPS and MUPS and psychiatric disorders, psychological distress, and use of services, in both unadjusted and multivariate regression analyses.

Results
One-third (33.6%) of the respondents reported at least one GPS and 11.1% reported at least one MUPS within the last year. 10.7% of respondents had three or more GPS and 1.5% had three or more MUPS. Three or more GPS and MUPS were positively associated with depressive, anxiety, and substance use disorders; service use; and psychological distress in unadjusted comparisons. In multivariate regressions, GPS persisted as a significant predictor, but there was no significant independent effect of MUPS, after controlling for GPS and other covariates.

Conclusions
Regardless of the presence or absence of medical explanations, physical symptoms are an important component of common mental disorders such as depression and anxiety and predict service use in community populations. These results suggest that three or more current GPS can be used to designate a “case” and that detailed probes and procedures aimed at determining whether or not physical symptoms are medically unexplained may not be necessary for classification purposes.

Keywords: Somatoform disorders, Epidemiology

a Department of Psychiatry, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ, USA

b Department of Family Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ, USA

c Center for Multicultural Health Research, Cambridge Health Alliance-Harvard Medical School, Somerville, MA, USA

d UMDNJ-University Behavioral Health Care (UBHC) Piscataway, NJ, USA

e Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven CT, USA

Corresponding author.
PII: S0022-3999(10)00006-1
doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2010.01.001

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Articles in Press
http://www.jpsychores.com/inpress

Screening for multiple somatic complaints in a population-based survey: Does excessive symptom reporting capture the concept of somatic symptom disorders? Findings from the MONICA-KORA Cohort Study
In Press Corrected Proof , Available online 02 March 2010
Karl Heinz Ladwig, Birgitt Marten-Mittag, Maria Elena Lacruz, Peter
Henningsen, Francis Creed, for the MONICA KORA Investigators
Journal of Psychosomatic Research
DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2010.01.009
Abstract | Full Text | Full-Text PDF (544 KB)

http://www.jpsychores.com/article/S0022-3999(10)00014-0/abstract

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Articles in Press
http://www.jpsychores.com/inpress

Measuring fatigue in clinical and community settings
In Press Corrected Proof , Available online 11 December 2009
Matteo Cella, Trudie Chalder
Journal of Psychosomatic Research
DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2009.10.007
Abstract | Full Text | Full-Text PDF (135 KB)

http://www.jpsychores.com/article/S0022-3999(09)00417-6/abstract

Footnotes:

[1] The DSM-5 Somatic Symptom Disorders Work Group proposal is that Somatoform Disorders, Psychological Factors Affecting Medical Condition (PFAMC), and Factitious Disorders should be combined under a common rubric entitled “Somatic Symptom Disorders” and for a new classification “Complex Somatic Symptom Disorder (CSSD).”

The DSM-5 public review period runs from 10 February to 20 April 2010. Members of the public, patient representation organisations, professionals and other end users can submit responses, online.

Please take this opportunity to comment and to alert and encourage professionals and international patient organisations to participate. If the proposals of the “Somatic Symptom Disorders” Work Group were to be approved there may be medical, social and economic implications to the detriment of all patient populations – especially those bundled by many psychiatrists under the so-called “Functional Somatic Syndromes” (FSS) and “Medically Unexplained Syndromes” (MUS) umbrella, under which some include CFS, ME, FM, IBS, CI, CS, chronic Lyme disease, GWS and others.

Proposed Draft Revisions to DSM Disorders and Criteria are published here on the APA’s relaunched DSM5.org website: http://www.dsm5.org/Pages/Default.aspx

Somatic Symptom Disorders

Proposed new DSM-5 category: Complex Somatic Symptom Disorder

Two key PDF documents are associated with these proposals:

      Somatic Symptom Disorders Introduction  DRAFT January 29, 2010

      Justification of Criteria – Somatic Symptoms  DRAFT January 29, 2010

[2] Review paper: CISSD Project leads Kroenke K, Sharpe M, Sykes R: Revising the Classification of Somatoform Disorders: Key Questions and Preliminary Recommendations. Psychosomatics 2007 Jul-Aug;48(4):277-85. FREE Full Text: http://psy.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/48/4/277

18 Proposals submitted by Dr Richard Sykes to WHO ICD Update and Revision Platform, Topical Advisory Group – Mental Health (TAGMH) https://extranet.who.int/icdrevision/GroupPage.aspx?gcode=104

The paper: Kroenke K: Somatoform disorders and recent diagnostic controversies. Psychiatr Clin North Am 2007 Dec;30(4):593-619:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17938036  contains the following caveat:

“Although the CISSD is an ad hoc group that includes many international experts on somatoform disorders, it was neither appointed nor sanctioned by the APA or WHO, the organizations authorized to approve revisions of DSM and ICD, respectively. As such, the CISSD recommendations should be considered advisory rather than official. Also, there were some suggestions for which the CISSD achieved near consensus but other issues where opinions diverged considerably.”

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