Two proposed changes dropped from DSM-5: Media round-up

Two proposed changes dropped from DSM-5: Media round-up

Post #169 Shortlink: http://wp.me/pKrrB-28a

Pharma Blog

Should A Federal Agency Oversee The DSM?

Ed Silverman | May 15, 2012

…Frances proposes that a federal agency ought to assume the job of developing the DSM, although he believes a new organization would be required, one that could be housed in the US Department of Health and Human Services, the Institute of Medicine or the World Health Organization. An equivalent of the FDA is needed to “mind the store,” as he puts it.

This may raise a different set of objections, of course. To what extent, for instance, should a federal agency delve deeply into determining diagnoses and definitions? On the other hand, perhaps this would remove the concerns over self-interest and conflict that have tainted the process. What do you think?

Should a Federal Agency Run The DSM?

Psych Central

An Epidemic of Mental Disorders?

John M. Grohol, PsyD, Founder & Editor-in-Chief | May 15, 2012

Psychiatric Times

COMMENTARY

Is There Really an “Epidemic” of Psychiatric Illness in the US?

Ronald W. Pies, MD | May 1, 2012

Epidemic: (from epidēmos, prevalent : epi-, epi- + dēmos, people) “…an epidemic refers to an excessive occurrence of a disease.”–from Friis & Sellers, Epidemiology for Public Health Practice, 4th ed, 2010

If claims in the non-professional media can be believed, there is a “raging epidemic of mental illness” in the US¹, if not world-wide—and, in one version of this narrative, psychiatric treatment itself is identified as the culprit. There are several formulations of the “epidemic narrative,” depending on which of psychiatry’s critics is writing. In the most radical version, it is psychiatric medication that is fueling the supposed burgeoning of mental illness, particularly depression and schizophrenia.² More subtle variants suggest that there is a “false epidemic” of some psychiatric disorders, driven by dramatically rising rates of “false positive” diagnoses.³…

Time Healthland

Mental Health

DSM 5 Could Mean 40% of College Students Are Alcoholics

Maia Szalavitz | May 14, 2012

Most college binge drinkers and drug users don’t develop lifelong problems. But new mental-health guidelines will label too many of them addicts and alcoholics…

Side Effects at Psychology Today

DSM-5 Is Diagnosed, with a Stinging Rebuke to the APA
The regrettable history of the DSM

Christopher Lane, Ph.D. | May 14, 2013

…Among the fiercest critics quoted is Mark Rapley, a clinical psychologist at the University of East London, who puts it this way: “The APA insists that psychiatry is a science. [But] real sciences do not decide on the existence and nature of the phenomena they are dealing with via a show of hands with a vested interest and pharmaceutical industry sponsorship.” Despite commending the DSM-5 authors for “reconsidering some of their most unfortunate mistakes,” clinical psychologist Peter Kinderman of the University of Liverpool adds that the manual remains, at bottom, a bad and faulty system. “The very minor revisions recently announced do not constitute the wholesale revision that is called for,” he is quoted as saying. “It would be very unfortunate if these minor changes were to be used to suggest that the task force has listened in any meaningful way to critics….”

The New American

Critics Blast Big Psychiatry for Invented and Redefined Mental Illnesses

Alex Newman | May 13, 2012

Allen J Frances lecture

Published on 11 May 2012 by tvochannel

Psychiatrist and author, Allen J. Frances, believes that mental illnesses are being over-diagnosed. In his lecture, Diagnostic Inflation: Does Everyone Have a Mental Illness?, Dr. Frances outlines why he thinks the DSM-V will lead to millions of people being mislabeled with mental disorders. His lecture was part of Mental Health Matters, an initiative of TVO in association with the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health.

Podcast http://bit.ly/KhLuhd

57:36 mins | 19 MB

As part of Mental Health Matters Week, Big Ideas presents a lecture by Allen J Frances, MD, who had chaired the DSM-IV Task Force.

Website http://a2zn.com/?p=3507

News wire

May 6, 2012 University of Toronto

Produced in collaboration with the Center for Addiction and Mental Health

Allen J Frances lecture

Diagnostic inflation. Does everyone have a mental illness?

Big Ideas – May 12 and 13 at 5 pm ET

TVO’s lecture series will present special guest speaker Dr. Allen J. Frances, who will outline why he believes that mental illnesses are being over-diagnosed these days and why he thinks the fifth and latest version of the psychiatrist’s bible, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders will lead to millions of people being mislabeled with mental disorders.

The lecture will be recorded May 6 at University of Toronto’s Hart House.

1 Boring Old Man

the dreams of our fathers I…

1 Boring Old Man |  May 12, 2012

University Diaries

“Diagnostic Exuberance”…

Margaret Soltan | May 13, 2012

BMJ News

More psychiatrists attack plans for DSM-5

BMJ 2012; 344 doi: 10.1136/bmj.e3357 (Published 11 May 2012)

Geoff Watts

The authors of the 5th edition of the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), due to be published in May 2013, have responded to previous criticisms of their text by announcing a further series of changes.1

But far from mollifying their critics, these concessions have served to ignite a further and still more vituperative barrage of dissent.

The list of topics under reconsideration or already subject to change can be found on the DSM-5 website.2 It includes the proposed “attenuated psychosis syndrome,” which is slated for further study, and also major depressive disorder. Here the authors have added a footnote “to …

Access to the full text of this article requires a subscription or payment

Scientific American Blogs

Why Are There No Biological Tests in Psychiatry?

By Ingrid Wickelgren | May 11, 2012 | 2

Part 5 of a 5-part series Allen Frances

New York Times

Op-Ed Contributor

Diagnosing the D.S.M.

Allen Frances | May 11, 2012

“…All mental-health disciplines need representation — not just psychiatrists but also psychologists, counselors, social workers and nurses. The broader consequences of changes should be vetted by epidemiologists, health economists and public-policy and forensic experts. Primary care doctors prescribe the majority of psychotropic medication, often carelessly, and need to contribute to the diagnostic system if they are to use it correctly. Consumers should play an important role in the review process, and field testing should occur in real life settings, not just academic centers.

Psychiatric diagnosis is simply too important to be left exclusively in the hands of psychiatrists. They will always be an essential part of the mix but should no longer be permitted to call all the shots…”

MedPage Today

DSM-5: What’s In, What’s Out

John Gever, Senior Editor, MedPage Today |  May 10, 2012

   …The final drafts are to be completed by August, then they must be approved by a scientific review committee and the task force leadership, and finally by the APA’s governing bodies.

Kupfer said the final version has to be completed by December, when it’s set to go to the printer. Its formal release is planned for the APA’s annual meeting next May in San Francisco.

Here’s a brief overview of the changes you can expect…

WHAT’S OUT
WHAT’S IN (or STILL IN)
WHAT DIDN’T MAKE IT
WHAT TO LOOK FORWARD TO

Reuters 1

Two proposed changes dropped from psychiatric guide

Julie Steenhuysen | Reuters CHICAGO | May 9, 2012

CHICAGO (Reuters) – Two proposed psychiatric diagnoses failed to make the last round of cuts in the laborious process of revising the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders — an exhaustive catalog of symptoms used by doctors to diagnose psychiatric illness.

Gone from the latest revision are “attenuated psychosis syndrome,” intended to help identify individuals at risk of full-blown psychosis, and “mixed anxiety depressive disorder”, a blend of anxiety and depression symptoms. Both performed badly on field tests and in public comments gathered by the group in its march toward the May 2013 publication deadline.

Both have been tucked into Section III of the manual — the place reserved for ideas that do not yet have enough evidence to make the cut as a full-blown diagnosis.

What has survived, despite fierce public outcry, is a change in the diagnosis of autism, which eliminates the milder diagnosis of Asperger syndrome in favor of the umbrella diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder.

But that, too, could still be altered before the final manual is published, the group says. The APA opened the final comment period for its fifth diagnostic manual known as DSM-V on May 2, and it will accumulate comments through June 15.

Dr. David Kupfer, who chairs the DSM-5 Task Force, said in a statement that the changes reflect the latest research and input from the public.

Dr. Wayne Goodman, professor and chairman of the department of psychiatry at Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York, said he’s glad the task force is responding to feedback from professionals and the public.

“I think they are trying to listen,” he said.

Goodman agrees with the decisions to drop both of the two disorders in the latest revision.

With the “mixed anxiety and depressive disorder,” he said there was a risk that it would capture a number of people who did not qualify under a diagnosis of depression or anxiety alone.

“It could lead to overdiagnosis,” Goodman said.

He said the “attenuated psychosis syndrome” diagnosis would have been useful for research purposes to help identify those at risk of psychosis, but there was a concern that it might label people who were just a bit different as mentally ill.

“The predictive value is not clear yet,” he said. “I think it’s reasonable not to codify it until we have better definition of its predictive value.”

Goodman, who worked on DSM-4, the last revision of the manual published in 1994, and is working on the Obsessive Compulsive Disorder section of the current revision of DSM-5, said the strength of the process is that it can offer a reliable way for psychiatrists across the country to identify patients with the same sorts of disorders.

The weakness, he said, is that it largely lacks biological evidence — blood tests, imaging tests and the like — that can validate these diagnoses.

“DSM-5 is a refinement of our diagnostic system, but it doesn’t add to our ability to understand the underlying illness,” he said.

Dr. Emil Coccaro, chairman of the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience at the University of Chicago Medicine, said typically changes in the DSM occur because of new data.

Coccaro, who is contributing to the new section in the DSM-5 on Intermittent Explosive Disorder, said there is no question that many people aren’t convinced that some of the diagnoses need to be changed, or that there need to be new ones added.

“This also happened the last time when they did DSM-4,” he said, but that was nearly 20 years ago.

“You can keep waiting but at certain point you have to fish or cut bait and actually come out with a new edition. That is what is happening now,” he said.

Comments to the manual can be submitted at www.DSM5.org

(Reporting By Julie Steenhuysen)

Reuters 2

Experts unconvinced by changes to psychiatric guide

Kate Kelland | Reuters LONDON | May 10, 2012

(Reuters) – Many psychiatrists believe a new edition of a manual designed to help diagnose mental illness should be shelved for at least a year for further revisions, despite some modifications which eliminated two controversial diagnoses.

The new edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM 5) is due out this month, the first full revision since 1994 of the renowned handbook, which is used worldwide and determines how to interpret symptoms in order to diagnose mental illnesses.

But more than 13,000 health professionals from around the world have already signed an open letter petition (at dsm5-reform.com) calling for DSM 5 to be halted and re-thought.

“Fundamentally, it remains a bad system,” said Peter Kinderman, a professor of clinical psychology at Britain’s Liverpool University.

“The very minor revisions…do not constitute the wholesale revision that is called for,” he said in an emailed comment.

The American Psychiatric Association (APA), which produces the DSM, said on Wednesday it had decided to drop two proposed diagnoses, for “attenuated psychosis syndrome” and “mixed anxiety depressive disorder”.

The former, intended to help identify people at risk of full-blown psychosis, and the latter, which suggested a blend of anxiety and depression, had been criticized as too ill-defined.

With these and other new diagnoses such as “oppositional defiant disorder” and “apathy syndrome”, experts said the draft DSM 5 could define as mentally ill millions of healthy people – ranging from shy or defiant children to grieving relatives, to people with harmless fetishes.

“SIMPLY NOT USABLE”

Robin Murray, a professor of psychiatric research at the Institute of Psychiatry at Kings College London, said it was a great relief to see the changes in the draft, particularly to the attenuated psychosis diagnosis.

“It would have done a lot of harm by diverting doctors into thinking about imagined risk of psychosis (and) it would have led to unnecessary fears among patients that they were about to go mad,” he said in a statement.

But Allen Frances, emeritus professor at Duke University in the United States, said: “This is only a first small step toward desperately needed DSM 5 reform. Numerous dangerous suggestions remain.”

Frances, who chaired a committee overseeing the DSM 4, added that the DSM 5 “is simply not usable” and should be delayed for a year “to allow for independent review, to clean up its obscure writing, and for retesting”.

Diagnosis is always controversial in psychiatry, since it defines how patients will be treated based on a cluster of symptoms, many of which occur in several different types of mental illness.

Some argue that the whole approach needs to be changed to pay more attention to individual circumstances rather than slotting them into predefined categories.

“(The DSM) is wrong in principle, based as it is on redefining a whole range of understandable reactions to life circumstances as ‘illnesses’, which then become a target for toxic medications heavily promoted by the pharmaceutical industry,” said Lucy Johnstone, a consultant clinical psychologist for the Cwm Taf Health Board in Wales.

“The DSM project cannot be justified, in principle or in practice. It must be abandoned so that we can find more humane and effective ways of responding to mental distress.”

Others, however, are pushing more for the manual to be reviewed more thoroughly to allow for more accurate diagnosis and, in theory, more appropriate treatment.

One of the proposed changes that has survived in the draft DSM 5 – despite fierce public outcry – is in autism. The new edition eliminates the milder diagnosis of Asperger syndrome in favor of the umbrella diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder.

(Editing by Myra MacDonald)

New York Times

Psychiatry Manual Drafters Back Down on Diagnoses

Benedict Carey | May 8, 2012

In a rare step, doctors on a panel revising psychiatry’s influential diagnostic manual have backed away from two controversial proposals that would have expanded the number of people identified as having psychotic or depressive disorders.

The doctors dropped two diagnoses that they ultimately concluded were not supported by the evidence: “attenuated psychosis syndrome,” proposed to identify people at risk of developing psychosis, and “mixed anxiety depressive disorder,” a hybrid of the two mood problems.

They also tweaked their proposed definition of depression to allay fears that the normal sadness people experience after the loss of a loved one, a job or a marriage would be mistaken for a mental disorder.

But the panel, appointed by the American Psychiatric Association to complete the fifth edition of its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, or D.S.M., did not retreat from another widely criticized proposal, to streamline the definition of autism. Predictions by some experts that the new definition will sharply reduce the number of people given a diagnosis are off base, panel members said, citing evidence from a newly completed study.

Both the study and the newly announced reversals are being debated this week at the psychiatric association’s annual meeting in Philadelphia, where dozens of sessions were devoted to the D.S.M., the standard reference for mental disorders, which drives research, treatment and insurance decisions.

Dr. David J. Kupfer, a professor of psychiatry at the University of Pittsburgh and the chairman of the task force making revisions, said the changes came in response mainly to field trials — real-world studies testing whether newly proposed diagnoses are reliable from one psychiatrist to the next — and also public commentary. “Our intent for disorders that require more evidence is that they be studied further, and that people work with the criteria” and refine them, Dr. Kupfer said…

CBS News

Panel suggests DSM-5 psychiatry manual drops two disorders, keeps new autism definition

Michelle Castillo | May 10, 2012

(CBS News) – A panel of doctors reviewing the much-debated Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5 (DSM-5) have recommended to drop two controversial diagnoses.

The panel announced that attenuated psychosis syndrome — which identifies people at risk of developing psychosis — and mixed anxiety depressive disorder — a diagnosis which combines both anxiety and depression — should not be included in the manual’s upcoming version, the New York Times reported.

Proposed changes to autism definition may mean new diagnoses for people with Asperger’s

However, a controversial definition for autism, which will delete diagnoses for Asperger’s syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder and combine severe cases into the broader definition of autism, will remain…

MedPage Today

Autism Criteria Critics Blasted by DSM-5 Leader

John Gever, Senior Editor | May 08, 2012

PHILADELPHIA — The head of the American Psychiatric Association committee rewriting the diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorders took on the panel’s critics here, accusing them of bad science.

Susan Swedo, MD, of the National Institute of Mental Health, said a review released earlier this year by Yale University researchers was seriously flawed. That review triggered a wave of headlines indicating that large numbers of autism spectrum patients could lose their diagnoses and hence access to services…

Nature

Psychosis risk syndrome excluded from DSM-5

Benefits of catching psychosis early are deemed to come at too high a price.

Amy Max | May 9, 2012

A controversial category of mental illness will not be included in the revised fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), the American Psychiatric Association (APA) has said. Attenuated psychosis syndrome, also known as psychosis risk syndrome, had been intended mainly for young adults who have heard whispers in their heads, viewed objects as threatening or suffered other subtly psychotic symptoms…

Scientific American Blogs

Trouble at the Heart of Psychiatry’s Revised Rule Book

Ingrid Wickelgren | May 9, 2012

Part 3 in a series

Huffington Post | Allen Frances Blog

Psychiatric Mislabeling Is Bad for Your Mental Health

Allen Frances, MD | May 9, 2012

DSM-5 Somatic Symptom Disorders: Differences between second and third draft for CSSD

DSM-5 Somatic Symptom Disorders: Differences between second and third draft for CSSD

Post #168 Shortlink: http://wp.me/pKrrB-27y

A reminder that the third and final DSM-5 comment period closes on June 15 and that I am collating submissions on this site.

Comments are open to professional and lay stakeholders. Please alert clinicians, researchers, allied health professionals, social workers, lawyers, educationalists, therapists, patient advocacy groups to these proposals.

Full proposals, criteria and rationales for the Somatic Symptom Disorders are set out in this post:

DSM-5 proposals for Somatoform Disorders revised on April 27, 2012

According to DSM-5 Task Force Chair, David Kupfer, MD, “After the comment period closes, visitors will no longer be able to submit feedback through the site, and the site will not reflect any further revisions to the draft manual in anticipation of its publication in May 2013. However, the site will remain live and viewable.”

 

Somatic Symptom Disorders Work Group proposals:

Two PDF Disorder Descriptions and Rationale/Validity Propositions PDF documents had accompanied the first and second drafts. There are no revised PDFs reflecting the most recent proposals available on the DSM-5 Development website and the documents published with the second draft have been removed.

I have asked the APA’s Media and Communications Office to clarify whether the Somatic Symptom Disorder Work Group intends to publish revised Disorder Descriptions or Rationale/Validity Propositions documents during the life of the stakeholder review period or whether these documents are being dispensed with for this third draft.

Should updated documents be added to the site during the comment period I will post links.

 

Notes on differences between the second and third draft proposals for CSSD

As with the first and second drafts, the intention remains to rename the Somatoform Disorders section to Somatic Symptom Disorders.

The proposal continues to combine the existing DSM-IV categories:

Somatization Disorder
Hypochondriasis
Undifferentiated Somatoform Disorder
Pain Disorder

into a single new category, Somatic Symptom Disorder.

For the second draft, the work group had suggested two separate diagnoses, Complex Somatic Symptom Disorder CSSD) and Simple Somatic Symptom Disorder (SSSD).

Following evaluation of the results of the DSM-5 field trials, the Somatic Symptom Disorders Work Group has decided that Simple Somatic Symptom Disorder  is “a less severe variant of CSSD.”

The Work Group now proposes merging CSSD and SSSD into a single category called Somatic Symptom Disorder (SSD) and is suggesting dropping the word “Complex” from the category term.

The latest proposed category names for the revision of the DSM-IV’s Somatoform Disorders now look like this:

Somatic Symptom Disorders

J 00 Somatic Symptom Disorder – with the option for specifying:

Mild Somatic Symptom Disorder
Moderate Somatic Symptom Disorder
Severe Somatic Symptom Disorder

J 01 Illness Anxiety Disorder |
J 02 Conversion Disorder (Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder) |
J 03 Psychological Factors Affecting Medical Condition |
J 04 Factitious Disorder |
J 05 Somatic Symptom Disorder Not Elsewhere Classified |

Revised Criteria, Rationale and Severity texts for the above can be found at the links above or on this webpage:

http://www.dsm5.org/ProposedRevision/Pages/SomaticSymptomDisorders.aspx

These are the criteria for J00 Somatic Symptom Disorder

http://www.dsm5.org/ProposedRevision/Pages/proposedrevision.aspx?rid=368

J 00 Somatic Symptom Disorder

Updated April-27-2012

Proposed Revision

Somatic Symptom Disorder

Note that the criteria for CSSD in the previous draft, released in May 2011, had read:

“B. Excessive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors related to these somatic symptoms or associated health concerns: At least two of the following must be present.”

But for the third draft, this has been reduced to

“B. Excessive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors related to these somatic symptoms or associated health concerns: At least one of the following must be present.”

This is presumably to accommodate Simple Somatic Symptom Disorder within what had been the criteria for CSSD.

(Last year, for the second draft, the criteria for CSSD had required two from (1), (2) and (3) and a symptom duration of greater than 6 months, whereas the criteria for SSSD had required only one from (1), (2) and (3) and a symptom duration of greater than one month.)

 

Note also that the option for three Severity Specifiers for J00 Somatic Symptom Disorder category: Mild, Moderate, Severe, might potentially be intended to correspond to three newly proposed categories in the ICD-11 Chapter 5: Somatoform Disorders section.

In the ICD-11 Alpha drafting platform (which is a work in progress and comes with caveats), the Somatoform Disorders categories are currently proposed to be renamed to Bodily Distress Disorders. There are three new categories listed:

6R0 Mild bodily distress disorder
6R1 Moderate bodily distress disorder
6R2 Severe bodily distress disorder

These three new category suggestions have no definitions or descriptive parameters visible in the ICD-11 Alpha draft so it isn’t possible to determine at this stage what disorders these newly suggested terms might be intended to capture; nor how they would relate to the existing somatoform disorders categories that still remain listed beneath them in this section of the Alpha draft.

For comparison, this is how the corresponding section of ICD-11 categories currently displays:

ICD-11 Alpha draft:

BODILY DISTRESS DISORDERS [Formerly Somatoform Disorders]

6R0 Mild bodily distress disorder
6R1 Moderate bodily distress disorder
6R2 Severe bodily distress disorder
6R3 Somatization disorder
6R4 Undifferentiated somatoform disorder
6R5 Somatoform autonomic dysfunction
6R6 Persistent somatoform pain disorder
     6R6.1 Persistent somatoform pain disorder
     6R6.2 Chronic pain disorder with somatic and psychological factors [not in ICD-10]
6R7 Other somatoform disorders
6R8 Somatoform disorder, unspecified

Hypochondriacal disorder [ICD-10: F45.2] is currently listed in ICD-11 Chapter 5 as Illness Anxiety Disorder under 6L5 ANXIETY AND FEAR-RELATED DISORDERS > 6L5.6 Illness Anxiety Disorder.

Dissociative (Conversion disorders) [ICD-10: F44] is currently listed in ICD-11 Chapter 5 under Neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders > 7A5 Dissociative [conversion] disorders.

There had been discussions by the SSD and Dissociative Disorders work groups for potentially locating Conversion Disorder under the DSM-5 Dissociative Disorders section, for congruency with its location within ICD-10.

For the third draft, it appears that the groups with oversight of the revision of conversion disorder have decided that this category should be renamed to Conversion Disorder (Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder) and classified as a Somatic Symptom Disorder.

In a future post, for ease of comparison, I will post a table comparing DSM-5 third draft proposals with current listings for ICD-11.

 

Links:

1] Somatic Symptom Disorders Third draft proposals:
http://www.dsm5.org/ProposedRevision/Pages/SomaticSymptomDisorders.aspx

2] Bodily Distress Disorders” to replace “Somatoform Disorders” for ICD-11?
http://wp.me/pKrrB-1Vx

3] DSM-5 proposals for Somatoform Disorders revised on April 27, 2012
http://wp.me/pKrrB-24D

4] Submissions to SSD Work Group May 2011 are archived here:
http://wp.me/PKrrB-19a

5] Submissions to SSD Work Group May 2012 are being collated here:
http://wp.me/PKrrB-1Ol

DSM-5 controversies, Cosgrove-Krimsky on potential COIs, counter statement from APA’s John Oldham and APA May Annual Meeting preliminary program

DSM-5 controversies, Cosgrove and Krimsky on potential COIs, counter statement from APA’s John Oldham and APA May Annual Meeting preliminary program

Post #152 Shortlink: http://wp.me/pKrrB-20e

Update @ March 20, 2012

Medscape Medical News > Psychiatry

APA Criticized Over DSM-5 Panel Members’ Industry Ties

Megan Brooks | March 20, 2012

March 20, 2012 — Two researchers have raised concerns that the upcoming Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) has been unduly influenced by the pharmaceutical industry, owing to financial conflicts of interest (FCOI) among DSM-5 panel members.

In an essay published in the March issue of PLoS Medicine, Lisa Cosgrove, PhD, from the Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, and Sheldon Krimsky, PhD, from the Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University, Boston, say the FCOI disclosure policy does not go far enough and has not been accompanied by a reduction in the conflicts of interest of DSM-5 panel members.

However, John M. Oldham, MD, President of the American Psychiatric Association (APA), “strongly” disagrees.

Read on

At DSM5 in Distress, Allen Frances, MD, who had chaired the task force for DSM-IV, writes:

According to this week’s Time magazine, the American Psychiatric Association has just recruited a new public relations spokesman  who previously worked at the Department of Defense. This is an appropriate choice for an association that substitutes a fortress mentality and  warrior bluster for substantive discussion. The article quotes him as saying: “Frances is a ‘dangerous’ man trying to undermine an earnest academic endeavor.”

Frances asks:

Am I A Dangerous Man?

No, but I do raise twelve dangerous questions

Allen Frances, M.D. | March 16, 2012

published in response to:

TIME Magazine

What Counts As Crazy?

John Cloud | Online March 14, 2012

Print edition | March 19, 2012

…The mind, in our modern conception, is an array of circuits we can manipulate with chemicals to ease, if not cure, depression, anxiety and other disorders. Drugs like Prozac have transformed how we respond to mental illness. But while this revolution has reshaped treatments, it hasn’t done much to help us diagnose what’s wrong to begin with. Instead of ordering lab tests, psychiatrists usually have to size up people using subjective descriptions of the healthy vs. the afflicted.

…Which is why the revision of a single book is roiling the world of mental health, pitting psychiatrists against one another in bitter…

Full article available to subscribers

Pharmalot

Should APA Purge DSM Panels With Pharma Ties?

Ed Silverman | March 15, 2012

As publication of the next version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, also known as DSM-5, approaches in May 2013, the so-called bible of psychiatrists is generating increasing scrutiny. The reason, of course, is that classification of various illnesses can help psychiatrists determine how to pursue treatment, which can involve prescribing medications that can ring registers for drugmakers…

Read on

Statement from John M. Oldham, M.D.

Mr Silverman’s report quotes from a statement issued on March 15 by John M. Oldham, M.D., President of the American Psychiatric Association (APA), in response to the Cosgrove and Krimsky PLoS Medicine Essay, “A Comparison of DSM-IV and DSM-5 Panel Members’ Financial Associations with Industry: A Pernicious Problem Persists.”

Read Dr Oldham’s statement here in PDF format:

    PDF statement John M Oldham, M.D., March 15, 2012

or full text below:

March 15, 2012

Statement for John M. Oldham, M.D., President of the American Psychiatric Association:

In their article, “A Comparison of DSM-IV and DSM-5 Panel Members’ Financial Associations with Industry: A Pernicious Problem Persists,” which appeared in the March issue of the journal Public Library of Science, and which ABC and other news outlets quoted, Cosgrove and Krimsky question the work of DSM-5’s volunteer Task Force and Work Group members because of publicly disclosed relationships with the pharmaceutical industry. Although we appreciate that Cosgrove and Krimsky acknowledge the commitment the American Psychiatric Association (APA) has already made to reducing potential financial conflicts of interest, we strongly disagree with their analysis and presentation of APA’s publicly available disclosure documents. Specifically, the Cosgrove-Krimsky article does not take into account the level to which DSM-5 Task Force and Work Group members have minimized or divested themselves from relationships with the pharmaceutical industry.

In 2012, 72 percent of the 153 members report no relationships with the pharmaceutical industry during the previous year. The scope of the relationships reported by the other 28 percent of member varies:

• 12 percent reported grant support only, including funding or receipt of medications for clinical trial research;

• 10 percent reported consultations including advice on the development of new compounds to improve treatments; and

• 7 percent reported receiving honoraria.

Additionally, since there were no disclosure requirements for journals, symposia or the DSM-IV Task Force at the time of the 1994 release of DSM-IV, Cosgrove and Krimsky’s comparison of DSM-IV and DSM-5 Task Force and Work Group members is not valid. In assembling the DSM-5’s Task Force and Work Groups, the APA’s Board of Trustees developed an extensive process of written disclosure of potential conflicts of interest. These disclosures are required of all professionals who participate in the development of DSM-5. An independent APA committee reviews these disclosure documents, which are updated annually or whenever a member’s financial interests change. Individuals are only permitted to serve on a work group or the Task Force if they are judged to have no significant financial interests.

The Board of Trustees’ guiding principles and disclosure policies for DSM panel members require annual disclosure of any competing interests or potentially conflicting relationships with entities that have an interest in psychiatric diagnoses and treatments. In addition, all Task Force and Work Group members agreed that, starting in 2007 and continuing for the duration of their work on DSM-5, each member’s total annual income derived from industry sources would not exceed $10,000 in any calendar year. This standard is more stringent than requirements for employees at the National Institutes of Health and for members of advisory committees for the Food and Drug Administration. And since their participation in DSM-5 began, many Task Force members have gone to greater lengths by terminating many of their industry relationships.

Potential financial conflicts of interest are serious concerns that merit careful, ongoing monitoring. The APA remains committed to reducing potential bias and conflicts of interest through our stringent guidelines.

A number of stories followed the publication of the Cosgrove and Krimsky PLoS Medicine Essay. Links for selected reports in this March 14 Dx Revision Watch post:

Cosgrove, Sheldon: 69% of DSM-5 task force members report pharmaceutical industry ties – review identifies potential COIs

Full text of Essay available here on PLoS site under “Open-access”:

A Comparison of DSM-IV and DSM-5 Panel Members’ Financial Associations with Industry: A Pernicious Problem Persists

Or open     PDF here

Long article from Sandra G. Boodman for Washington Post

Antipsychotic drugs grow more popular for patients without mental illness

Sandra G. Boodman | March 12, 2012

Adriane Fugh-Berman was stunned by the question: Two graduate students who had no symptoms of mental illness wondered if she thought they should take a powerful schizophrenia drug each had been prescribed to treat insomnia.

“It’s a total outrage,” said Fugh-Berman, a physician who is an associate professor of pharmacology at Georgetown University. “These kids needed some basic sleep [advice], like reducing their intake of caffeine and alcohol, not a highly sedating drug.”

Those Georgetown students exemplify a trend that alarms medical experts, policymakers and patient advocates: the skyrocketing increase in the off-label use of an expensive class of drugs called atypical antipsychotics. Until the past decade these 11 drugs, most approved in the 1990s, had been reserved for the approximately 3 percent of Americans with the most disabling mental illnesses, chiefly schizophrenia and bipolar disorder; more recently a few have been approved to treat severe depression.

But these days atypical antipsychotics — the most popular are Seroquel, Zyprexa and Abilify — are being prescribed by psychiatrists and primary-care doctors to treat a panoply of conditions for which they have not been approved, including anxiety, attention-deficit disorder, sleep difficulties, behavioral problems in toddlers and dementia. These new drugs account for more than 90 percent of the market and have eclipsed an older generation of antipsychotics. Two recent reports have found that youths in foster care, some less than a year old, are taking more psychotropic drugs than other children, including those with the severest forms of mental illness…

Read on

Financial Times

New autism diagnostic criteria may encourage symptomatic approach to drug use

Anusha Kambhampaty in New York, Abigail Moss in London | March 15, 2012

MedPage Today

DSM-5 Critics Pump Up the Volume

John Gever, Senior Editor | February 29, 2012

…In a conversation with MedPage Today, APA President John Oldham, MD, and DSM-5 task force chairman David Kupfer, MD, defended their handling of the revision and argued that many of the criticisms were off-base.

For starters, Kupfer said, the proposed revisions were still open to change or abandonment. The DSM-5 will assume its near-final form in June or July, he said – meaning that the APA’s annual meeting in May would provide another forum to debate the changes.

“[The proposals] are still open to revision,” he said. “The door is still very much open…”

[Ed: A third and final stakeholder review and comment period is anticipated in “May at the latest.”  Benedict Carey reported for New York Times, January 19, “The revisions are about 90 percent complete and will be final by December, according to Dr. David J. Kupfer…chairman of the task force making the revisions.”]

Read full Medpage Today article

Psychiatric News Volume 47, Number 4, February 17, 2012 publishes the preliminary schedule for the APA’s May annual meeting:

    PDF

APA’S 165TH ANNUAL MEETING, PHILADELPHIA, MAY 5-9, 2012
Preliminary Schedule

Criticism of DSM-5 proposals for grief in this week’s Lancet: Editorial and Essay

Criticism of DSM-5 proposals for grief in this week’s Lancet: Editorial and Essay

Post #143 Shortlink: http://wp.me/pKrrB-1Um

Update:

Christopher Lane Ph.D. has blogged at Side Effects at Psychology Today

Side Effects
From quirky to serious, trends in psychology and psychiatry.
by Christopher Lane, Ph.D.

Good Grief: The APA Plans to Give the Bereaved Two Weeks to Conclude Their Mourning

Britain’s “Lancet” calls the proposal “dangerously simplistic and flawed.”

Published on February 17, 2012 by Christopher Lane, Ph.D. in Side Effects

Allan Frances, MD, former chair of DSM-IV Task Force has blogged in DSM5 in Distress at Psychology Today

DSM5 in Distress
The DSM’s impact on mental health practice and research.
by Allen Frances, M.D.

Lancet Rejects Grief As a Mental Disorder

Will DSM 5 Finally Drop This Terrible Idea

Published on February 17, 2012 by Allen J. Frances, M.D. in DSM5 in Distress

 

This week in the Lancet

The lead Editorial in this week’s Lancet expresses concerns about specific proposals for the next edition of the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

The misclassification of grief as a mental illness

An Editorial expresses concerns about the forthcoming fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). While previous editions of DSM have highlighted the need to consider, and usually exclude, bereavement before diagnosis of a major depressive disorder, the current draft of this fifth edition fails to do that. In this week’s The Art of Medicine Arthur Kleinma reflects on his own personal experiences of grief and continues the discussion on the classification of grief as a mental illness. Finally, a Comment asks if attenuated psychosis syndrome should be included in DSM-5.

Lancet Editorial: Grief is not an illness and should not be routinely treated with antidepressants (Full text)

The Lancet, Volume 379, Issue 9816, Page 589, 18 February 2012 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60248-7 
http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(12)60248-7/fulltext

Also includes reference to ICD-11:

“WHO’s International Classification of Diseases, currently under revision as ICD-11, is debating a proposal to include “prolonged grief disorder”, but it will be another 18 months before that definition will be clear.” Editorial, The Lancet, Page 589, 18 February 2012

Essay: Culture, bereavement, and psychiatry (Full text)

The Lancet, Volume 379, Issue 9816, Pages 608 – 609, 18 February 2012 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60258-X
http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(12)60258-X/fulltext

Comment: Should attenuated psychosis syndrome be included in DSM-5? (Subscription or payment required)

The Lancet, Volume 379, Issue 9816, Pages 591 – 592, 18 February 2012 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61507-9
http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(11)61507-9/fulltext

Previous Lancet article on DSM-5

The first flight of DSM-5 | Niall Boyce

The Lancet, Volume 377, Issue 9780, Pages 1816 – 1817, 28 May 2011 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60743-5

Media coverage of UK concerns over DSM-5

Media coverage of UK concerns over DSM-5 (Science Media Centre press briefing)

Post #138  Shortlink: http://wp.me/pKrrB-1R8

Update: See also

Science Media Centre DSM-5 press briefing: Comments from research and clinical professionals

Criticism of DSM-5 proposals for grief in this week’s Lancet: Editorial and Essay

Round-up: media coverage following Lancet’s criticism of DSM-5 proposals for grief


On February 9, UK Science Media Centre held a press briefing for invited journalists amid mounting concern from mental health professionals for controversial proposals for the next edition of the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM).

DSM-5 is slated for publication in May 2013.

A third draft of proposed changes to DSM-IV categories and criteria is expected to be posted on the DSM-5 Development site, this May, for a two month long stakeholder review and feedback period.

This final review might be viewed as little more than a public relations exercise given the late stage in the drafting process – according to Task Force chair, David Kupfer, MD, “the revisions are about 90 percent complete.”

Those involved in the press briefing included:

Prof Nick Craddock, MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics & Genomics, Cardiff University School of Medicine

Peter Kinderman, Professor of clinical psychology at the University of Liverpool; honorary appointment as consultant clinical psychologist with Merseycare NHS Trust and a former Chair of the British Psychological Society’s Division of Clinical Psychology

Both have research and clinical interests in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and psychosis.

Psychologists and psychiatrists providing comment on their concerns for potential changes to DSM-IV, included Prof Nick Craddock, Prof Peter Kinderman, Allen Frances, MD, who had chaired the task force that had oversight of the drafting of DSM-IV, Prof Simon Wessely, Prof Richard Bentall, Dr Lucy Johnstone and Prof Til Wykes.

A Reuters News Alert by Kate Kelland, Health and Science Correspondent, issued on February 9, generated considerable interest and has been picked up by dozens of international news sites including Chicago Tribune, Orlando Sentinel, Windsor Star, Psychminded.co.uk, MSNBC, Montreal Gazette, Baltimore Sun and Vancouver Sun.

Professor Peter Kinderman and Dr David Kupfer who chairs the DSM-5 Task Force, debated concerns on Friday’s BBC Radio 4 “Today” programme (link for audio below).

Medical writer, Christopher Lane, author of How Normal Behaviour Became a Sickness, blogged, yesterday, at Side Effects at Psychology Today.

Side Effects
From quirky to serious, trends in psychology and psychiatry.
by Christopher Lane, Ph.D.

DSM-5 Controversy Is Now Firmly Transatlantic

Why the APA’s lower diagnostic thresholds are causing widespread concern.

Proposed draft revisions to the DSM, which the American Psychiatric Association recently made available on its website, are stirring major controversy on both sides of the Atlantic… Read on

John M Grohol, PsyD, editor at PsychCentral, is in a bit of a snit, here.

Comments provided by research and clinical professionals for the Science Media Centre DSM-5 press briefing here: http://wp.me/pKrrB-1TL

For around 100 links for news and media sites that have run DSM-5 stories in the past three weeks or so, open Word file here: Concerns for DSM-5 – Media coverage

Selected UK and international media coverage posted below, as it comes in, most recent at the top:


Insideireland.ie

Shyness: A mental illness?

Sarah Greer | February 13, 2012

British Psychological Society

Is shyness a mental illness?

February 13, 2012

Shyness in a child, and depression following the death of a loved one, could be classed as mental illness under new guidelines. The move could result in millions of people being placed at risk of having a psychiatric disorder, experts have warned.

Guardian

Comment is free

Do we need a diagnostic manual for mental illness?

Profs Richard Bentall and Nick Craddock discuss the controversial revisions to the US Diagnostic and Statistical Manual

Guardian, Comment is free | February 10, 2012

Friday round up…’hypersexual disorder’ is added to the psychiatric bible…

PULSE GP magazine  | February 10, 2012

Financial Times  (Registration may be required)

US mental guidelines attacked

Andrew Jack | February 10, 2012

ABC News

American Psychiatric Association Under Fire for New Disorders

Katie Moisse | February 10, 2012

Shyness, grief and eccentricity could suddenly become mental health disorders if the newest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders goes through as planned. But it won’t if more than 11,000 petitioners, most of whom are mental health professionals, have their way.

The DSM, the 900-page “bible” of psychiatric symptoms published by the American Psychiatric Association, has been around since 1952. But the fifth and latest edition, scheduled for publication in May 2013, has come under attack for “medicalizing” behaviors that some people would consider normal. The 11,000 petitioners are challenging proposed changes they say would label millions more Americans as mentally ill…

Read on

BBC News website and BBC Radio 4 Today programme

http://news.bbc.co.uk/today/hi/today/newsid_9694000/9694926.stm

0831
A new draft of the “psychiatric bible” – DSM5 – has provoked anger for its definitions of behaviours indicative of mental illness. Already, more than 11,000 have signed a petition calling for it to be rewritten and re-thought. David Kupfer who chairs the DSM 5 committee for the American Psychiatric Association, which put the book together, and Peter Kinderman, professor and honorary consultant clinical psychologist with Mersey Care NHS Trust, debate its pros and cons.

Quirk or mental illness?

[Audio interviews with DSM-5 Task Force Chair, David Kupfer, and Prof Peter Kinderman]

The new psychiatric bible, DSM 5, which is the world’s most widely used psychiatric reference book, has been released in draft form. Already, more than 11,000 people have signed a petition calling for it to be rewritten and re-thought. Some claim the new edition broadens the range of behaviours considered indicative of mental illnesses to a point where normal quirks of personality will lead to erroneous diagnoses.

David Kupfer who chairs the DSM 5 committee for the American Psychiatric Association, which put the book together, and Peter Kinderman, professor and honorary Consultant Clinical Psychologist with Mersey Care NHS Trust, debate the pros and cons of the book.

Behind a subscription or pay for access

BMJ News

News
Critics attack DSM-5 for overmedicalising normal human behaviour
BMJ 2012; 344 doi: 10.1136/bmj.e1020 (Published 10 February 2012)
Cite this as: BMJ 2012;344:e1020

News Bullet.in

Grieving, shyness to be called mental illness

Courtesy: Fox News | February 10,  2012

MILLIONS of healthy people – including shy or defiant children, grieving relatives and people with fetishes – may be wrongly labeled mentally ill by a new international diagnostic manual according to a report which appeared in Fox News.

The new classification is expected to figure in the influential Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). According to Fox News, psychologists, psychiatrists and mental health experts said its new categories and “tick-box” diagnosis systems were at best “silly” and at worst “worrying and dangerous…”

Read on

Daily Mail

Shyness in a child and depression after bereavement could be classed as mental illness in controversial new reforms

Jenny Hope | February 9, 2012

Childhood shyness could be reclassified as a mental disorder under controversial new guidelines, warn experts.

They also fear that depression after bereavement and behaviour now seen as eccentric or unconventional will also become ‘medicalised’…

Read on

Telegraph

also Independent.ie

Shyness could be defined as a mental illness

By Donna Bowater | February 10, 2012

SHYNESS, bereavement and eccentric behaviour could be classed as a mental illness under new guidelines, leaving millions of people at risk of being diagnosed as having a psychiatric disorder, experts fear.

Under changes planned to the diagnosis handbook used by doctors in the US, common behavioural traits are likely to be listed as a mental illness, it was reported…

Read on

Independent

Lonely? Shy? Sad? Well now you’re ‘mentally ill’, too

Expanded psychiatric ‘bible’ will see more people needlessly medicated, experts warn

Jeremy Laurance | February, 10 2012

Mild eccentrics, oddball romantics and the lonely, shy and sad could find themselves diagnosed with a mental disorder if proposals to add new conditions to the world’s most widely used psychiatric bible go ahead, experts have warned.

A major revision of the the 1994 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, whose fifth edition is due for publication next year, threatens to extend psychiatric diagnoses to millions of people currently regarded as normal, they say. Among the diagnostic labels are “oppositional defiance disorder” for challenging adolescents, “gambling disorder” for those compelled to have a flutter, and “hypersexual disorder” for those who think about sex at least once every 20 minutes. People crippled by shyness or suffering from loneliness could be diagnosed with “dysthymia”, defined as “feeling depressed for most of the day”.

More worrying, according to some experts, are attempts to redefine crimes as illnesses, such as “paraphilic coercive disorder”, applied to men engaged in sexual relationships involving the use of force. They are more commonly known as rapists…

Read on

Psych Central Blogs

Could Sadness And Shyness Be Mental Illnesses?

Richard Zwolinski, LMHC, CASAC | February 10, 2012

C.R. writes: No. The title of this blog post isn’t a joke. It is based on a series of alarming articles I just read about the new edition of the perennially controversial DSM.
 
In a Reuters piece, Peter Kinderman, a British clinical psychologist and head of the Institute of Psychology at Liverpool University was quoted as saying:
 
“The proposed revision to DSM … will exacerbate the problems that result from trying to fit a medical, diagnostic system to problems that just don’t fit nicely into those boxes,” said Peter Kinderman at a briefing about widespread concerns over the book in London.
 
He said the new edition – known as DSM-5 – “will pathologise a wide range of problems which should never be thought of as mental illnesses”.
 
“Many people who are shy, bereaved, eccentric, or have unconventional romantic lives will suddenly find themselves labeled as mentally ill,” he said. “It’s not humane, it’s not scientific, and it won’t help decide what help a person needs…”
 

Wales Online

Fears that grieving relatives could be labelled mentally ill

Madeleine Brindley Health Editor | February 10, 2012

CHANGES to the American “bible” of mental health disorders could see grieving relatives labelled mentally ill, experts have claimed.

In a backlash to the proposed reforms to the fourth version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – known as DSM-5 – thousands of experts have spoken out against the changes…

Read on

Guardian

Psychologists fear US manual will widen mental illness diagnosis
Mental disorders listed in publication that should not exists, warn UK experts

Sarah Boseley Health editor | February 9, 2012

Hundreds of thousands of people will be labelled mentally ill because of behaviour most people would consider normal, if a new edition of what has been termed the psychiatrists’ diagnostic bible goes ahead, experts are warning…

Read on

Reuters | February 9, 2012

Shyness an illness in “dangerous” health book-experts

• Grieving relatives could be classed as ill

• Revisions mean broader diagnoses of mental disorders

• Petition signed by 11,000 health workers calls for halt

By Kate Kelland, Health and Science Correspondent

LONDON, Feb 9 (Reuters) – Millions of healthy people – including shy or defiant children, grieving relatives and people with fetishes – may be wrongly labelled mentally ill by a new international diagnostic manual, specialists said on Thursday.

In a damning analysis of an upcoming revision of the influential Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), psychologists, psychiatrists and mental health experts said its new categories and “tick-box” diagnosis systems were at best “silly” and at worst “worrying and dangerous”.

Some diagnoses – for conditions like “oppositional defiant disorder” and “apathy syndrome” – risk devaluing the seriousness of mental illness and medicalising behaviours most people would consider normal or just mildly eccentric, the experts said.

At the other end of the spectrum, the new DSM, due out next year, could give medical diagnoses for serial rapists and sex abusers – under labels like “paraphilic coercive disorder” – and may allow offenders to escape prison by providing what could be seen as an excuse for their behaviour, they added.

The DSM is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and has descriptions, symptoms and other criteria for diagnosing mental disorders. It is used internationally and is seen as the diagnostic “bible” for mental health medicine.

More than 11,000 health professionals have already signed a petition (at http://dsm5-reform.com ) calling for the development of the fifth edition of the manual to be halted and re-thought.

“The proposed revision to DSM … will exacerbate the problems that result from trying to fit a medical, diagnostic system to problems that just don’t fit nicely into those boxes,” said Peter Kinderman, a clinical psychologist and head of Liverpool University’s Institute of Psychology at a briefing about widespread concerns over the book in London.

He said the new edition – known as DSM-5 – “will pathologise a wide range of problems which should never be thought of as mental illnesses”.

“Many people who are shy, bereaved, eccentric, or have unconventional romantic lives will suddenly find themselves labelled as mentally ill,” he said. “It’s not humane, it’s not scientific, and it won’t help decide what help a person needs.”

RADICAL, RECKLESS, AND INHUMANE

Simon Wessely of the Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London said a look back at history should make health experts ask themselves: “Do we need all these labels?”

He said the 1840 Census of the United States included just one category for mental disorder, but by 1917 the APA was already recognising 59. That rose to 128 in 1959, to 227 in 1980, and again to around 350 disorders in the fastest revisions of DSM in 1994 and 2000.

Allen Frances, Emeritus professor at Duke University and chair of the committee that oversaw the previous DSM revision, said the proposed DSM-5 would “radically and recklessly expand the boundaries of psychiatry” and result in the “medicalisation of normality, individual difference, and criminality”.

As an unintended consequence, he said an emailed comment, many millions of people will get inappropriate diagnoses and treatments, and already scarce funds would be wasted on giving drugs to people who don’t need them and may be harmed by them.

Nick Craddock of Cardiff University’s department of psychological medicine and neurology, who also spoke at the London briefing, cited depression as a key example of where DSM’s broad categories were going wrong.

Whereas in previous editions, a person who had recently lost a loved one and was suffering low moods would be seen as experiencing a normal human reaction to bereavement, the new DSM criteria would ignore the death, look only at the symptoms, and class the person as having a depressive illness.

Other examples of diagnoses cited by experts as problematic included “gambling disorder”, “internet addiction  disorder” and “oppositional defiant disorder” – a condition in which a child “actively refuses to comply with majority’s requests” and “performs deliberate actions to annoy others”.

“That basically means children who say ‘no’ to their parents more than a certain number of times,” Kinderman said. “On that criteria, many of us would have to say our children are mentally ill.” (Reporting by Kate Kelland; Editing by Andrew Heavens)

APA “Monitor” articles: ICD-11 and DSM-5; Frances, Rajiv Tandon on DSM-5; iCAT Analytics

1] ICD-11 (with contributions from WHO’s Dr Geoffery Reed) and DSM-5 articles in February edition of American Psychological Association’s “Monitor”

2] Academic article on DSM-5 by Rajiv Tandon, MD, Professor of Psychiatry, University of Florida

3] Allen Frances (who chaired the DSM-IV Task Force), Suzy Chapman and Dr Dayle Jones on DSM-5

4] Paper: Pragmatic Analysis of Crowd-Based Knowledge Production Systems with iCAT Analytics: Visualizing Changes to the ICD-11 Ontology

 

Post #137 Shortlink: http://wp.me/pKrrB-1QW

1] Two articles in the February edition of the American Psychological Association’s “Monitor”:

American Psychological Association

Monitor

Feature, February 2012, Vol 43, No. 2

Improving disorder classification, worldwide

Rebecca A. Clay  |  February 2012

With the help of psychologists, the next version of the International Classification of Diseases will have a more behavioral perspective.

Print version: page 40

What’s the world’s most widely used classification system for mental disorders? If you guessed the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), you would be wrong.

According to a study of nearly 5,000 psychiatrists in 44 countries sponsored by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Psychiatric Association, more than 70 percent of the world’s psychiatrists use WHO’s International Classification of Diseases (ICD) most in day-to-day practice while just 23 percent turn to the DSM. The same pattern is found among psychologists globally, according to preliminary results from a similar survey of international psychologists conducted by WHO and the International Union of Psychological Science.

“The ICD is the global standard for health information,” says psychologist Geoffrey M. Reed, PhD, senior project officer in WHO’s Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse. “It’s developed as a tool for the public good; it’s not the property of a particular profession or particular professional organization.”

Now WHO is revising the ICD, with the ICD-11 due to be approved in 2015. With unprecedented input from psychologists, the revised version’s section on mental and behavioral disorders is expected to be more psychologist-friendly than ever—something that’s especially welcome given concerns being raised about the DSM’s own ongoing revision process. (See “Protesting proposed changes to the DSM”.) And coming changes in the United States will mean that psychologists will soon need to get as familiar with the ICD as their colleagues around the world…

…”Since the rest of the world will be adopting the ICD-11 when it is released in 2015, the CDC will likely make annual updates to gradually bring the ICD-10-CM into line with the ICD-11 to avoid another abrupt shift. But the differences between the DSM and the ICD may grow even greater over time, says Reed, depending on the outcomes of the ICD and DSM revision processes.”

For more information about the ICD revision, visit the World Health Organization.

Rebecca A. Clay is a writer in Washington, D.C.

Read full article here

American Psychological Association

Monitor

February 2012, Vol 43, No. 2

Print version: page 42

Protesting proposed changes to the DSM

When President David N. Elkins, PhD, and two colleagues within APA’s Div. 32 (Society for Humanistic Psychology) heard about the proposed revisions to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), they were alarmed. But what could three people do?

Plenty, as it turns out.

Although their original aim was simply to educate the division’s members, Elkins, Secretary Brent Dean Robbins, PhD, and student representative Sara R. Kamens soon decided to share their concerns in an open letter to the American Psychiatric Association. Thinking it would pack more punch with a few more signatures, they posted it online last October.

The response astounded them. “Within two days, we had more than 1,500 signatures,” says Elkins. So far, more than 10,000 individuals and 40 mental health organizations have signed on, and media outlets as diverse as Nature, USA Today and Forbes have covered the controversy. APA, which has no official position on the controversy, urges its members to get involved in the debate (see APA’s statement in the January Monitor, page 10).

The open letter outlines three major concerns with the proposed draft of the DSM-5, set for publication in 2013…

Read full article here

2] Article by Rajiv Tandon, MD, Professor of Psychiatry, University of Florida:

Current Psychiatry

Vol. 11, No. 02 / February 2012

Getting ready for DSM-5: Part 1

The process, challenges, and status of constructing the next diagnostic manual

Rajiv Tandon, MD  |  February 2012
Professor of Psychiatry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL

Discuss this article at www.facebook.com/CurrentPsychiatry

Work on the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5)—scheduled to be published in May 2013—has been ongoing for more than a decade. Momentous advances in genetics and brain imaging since publication of DSM-IV in 1994 have generated optimism that an improved understanding of the neurobiologic underpinnings of psychiatric disorders might lead to a paradigm shift from the current descriptive classification system to a more scientific etiopathophysiological system similar to that used by other medical specialities.1

Some fear that any changes to our current classification system may be premature and could make an already complex system even more unwieldy.2 Scores of articles about the content and process of DSM-5 and several critiques and commentaries on the topic have been published. The American Psychiatric Association (APA) has made the DSM-5 process transparent by posting frequent updates to the DSM-5 Development Web site (www.dsm5.org), seeking feedback from the psychiatric community and the public, and presenting progress reports by members of the DSM-5 Task Force at scientific meetings.

There have been few discussions on the implications of DSM-5 from the practicing clinician’s vantage point, which I seek to present in this series of articles, the remainder of which will be published here, at CurrentPsychiatry.com…

Read on here

 

3] Allen Frances, MD, in Psychology Today and Psychiatric Times

Registration required for access to article on Psychiatric Times

DSM5 in Distress

PTSD, DSM 5, and Forensic Misuse
DSM 5 would lead to overdiagnosis in legal cases.

Allen Frances, MD | February 9, 2012

————————————————————

Documentation That DSM-5 Publication Must Be Delayed
because DSM 5 is so far behind schedule

Allen Frances, MD | February 7, 2012

Allen Frances, MD, who chaired the Task Force that had oversight of the development of DSM-IV, is a former chief of psychiatry at Duke University Medical Center and currently professor emeritus at Duke

Last week, I wrote that DSM-5 is so far behind schedule it can’t possibly produce a usable document in time for its planned publication date in May 2013.¹ My blog stimulated 2 interesting responses that illustrate the stark contrast between DSM-5 fantasy and DSM-5 reality. Together they document why publication must be delayed if DSM-5 is to be set right. The first email came from Suzy Chapman of Dx Revision Watch https://dxrevisionwatch.wordpress.com

Re DSM-5 delays, here is a telling statement made by Dr Darrel Regier, its Vice Chair, on March 9, 2010: “We have just released draft criteria on a website on February 10th at dsm5.org. And we’ll be having a field trial starting in July of this year. We’ll then have another revision based on field trial results going into a second revision or second field trial in July of 2011. As a result, we will not have our final recommendations for the DSM-V probably until early 2011.”  She continues,

Please note the dates. Dr Regier’s promised timetable has been missed by more than a year—we still don’t have final recommendations.

Dayle Jones, PhD, is head of the Task Force of the American Counseling Association that monitors DSM-5. She sent in a timeline comparing DSM-5 promised deadlines with actual delivery dates:

The DSM-5 academic/large clinic field trials were designed to have two phases. Phase 1 was first scheduled to begin in June 2009, but had to be postponed for a year because the criteria sets were not ready. The timetable for field trial completion was unrealistic from the start and not surprisingly the end dates have been repeatedly postponed from early 2010 to early 2011, and we’re now already into 2012 with no end in sight. Phase 2, originally scheduled for September 2011 to February 2012, was to re-test those diagnoses that did poorly in Phase 1 and had to be revised. The phase 2 trials were quietly canceled. We still don’t have results from the phase 1 field trials, but the APA leadership has warned us that we must accept reliabilities that are barely better than chance. Without the second stage, uncorrected problem diagnoses will be included in DSM-5.

The separate clinician field trial has been an even worse disaster. Clinicians were originally scheduled to be trained by August 2010, enrolling patients no later than late November 2010, and ending by February, 2011. Training was finally completed 18 months late in December 2011, which means the earliest these trials could possibly end is June 2012—well after most DSM-5 final decisions will have been made. Furthermore, of the over 5000 clinicians who registered to participate, only 70 (1.4%) have begun enrolling patients for the field trial. My guess is that like academic/large clinic Phase 2 field trial, poor planning and disorganization will force cancellation.

Dr Jones concludes,

In my opinion, there is no process and not enough time left to ensure that DSM-5 will attain high enough quality to be used by counselors. Fortunately, we can always bypass it by using ICD-10-CM.

Sobering stuff. Its constant procrastination has at last caught up with DSM-5. Having fallen so far behind schedule, DSM-5 abruptly dropped the second stage of field-testing—without public comment or justification or discussion of what would be the effects on quality and reliability. In fact, the second stage of the field trials was perhaps the most crucial step in the entire DSM-5 process—a last chance for sorely needed quality control to bring a lagging DSM-5 up to acceptable standards. The DSM-5 proposals that were weak performers in the first stage were supposed to be rewritten and retested in the second to ensure that they deserved to be included in the manual.

The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is now stuck with the most unpalatable of choices—protecting the quality of DSM-5 versus protecting the publishing profits to be gained by premature publication. Given all the delays, it can’t possibly do both—a quality DSM-5 cannot be delivered in May 2013.

All along, it was predictable (and predicted), that DSM-5 disorganization would lead to a mad, careless dash at the end. The DSM’s have become far too important to be done in this slapdash way—the high cost to users and the public of this rush to print is unacceptable. Unless publication is delayed, APA will be offering us official DSM-5 criteria that are poorly written, inadequately tested, and of low reliability. The proper alternative is clear: APA should delay publication of DSM-5 until it can get the job done right. Public trust should always trump publishing profits.

Let’s close with a worrying and all too illustrative quote from Dr Regier, just posted by Scientific American.² When asked if revisions to criteria in DSM-5 could be completed by the end of this year, he said “there is plenty of time.” I beg to differ—there is not nearly enough time if the changes are to be done based on a much needed independent scientific review and are to be tested adequately in Phase 2 of the field trial. Without these necessary steps DSM-5 will be flying blind toward the land of unintended consequences.

References
1. Frances A. APA should delay publication of DSM-5. January 31, 2012. Psychiatr Times.
http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/blog/frances/content/article/10168/2024394

2. Jabr F. Redefining autism: will new DSM-5 Criteria for ASD exclude some people? January 30, 2012. Sci Am. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=autism-new-criteria  Accessed February 7, 2012.

 

4] Paper: Pragmatic Analysis of Crowd-Based Knowledge Production Systems with iCAT Analytics: Visualizing Changes to the ICD-11 Ontology

     Pragmatic Analysis – iCAT Analytics 2012

Pragmatic Analysis of Crowd-Based Knowledge Production Systems with iCAT Analytics: Visualizing Changes to the ICD-11 Ontology

http://kmi.tugraz.at/staff/markus/documents/2012_AAAI_iCATAnalytics.pdf

Jan P¨oschko and Markus Strohmaier, Knowledge Management Institute, Graz University of Technology, Inffeldgasse 21a/II, 8010 Graz, Austria

Tania Tudorache and Natalya F. Noy and Mark A. Musen, Stanford Center for Biomedical Informatics Research, 1265 Welch Road, Stanford, CA 94305-5479, USA

Abstract

While in the past taxonomic and ontological knowledge was traditionally produced by small groups of co-located experts, today the production of such knowledge has a radically different shape and form. For example, potentially thousands of health professionals, scientists, and ontology experts will collaboratively construct, evaluate and  maintain the most recent version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11), a large ontology of diseases and causes of deaths managed by the World Health Organization. In this work, we present a novel web-based tool-iCAT Analytics-that allows to investigate systematically crowd-based processes in knowledge-production systems. To enable such investigation, the tool supports interactive exploration of pragmatic aspects of ontology engineering such as how a given ontology evolved and the nature of changes, discussions and interactions that took place during its production process. While iCAT Analytics was motivated by ICD-11, it could potentially be applied to any crowd-based ontology-engineering project. We give an introduction to the features of iCAT Analytics and present some insights specifically for ICD-11.

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