Somatic Symptom Disorder in recent journal papers

Post #261 Shortlink: http://wp.me/pKrrB-3ah

Somatic Symptom Disorder in recent journal papers

Somatic Symptom Disorder is also included in Saving Normal: An Insider’s Revolt Against Out-Of-Control Psychiatric Diagnosis, Dsm-5, Big Pharma, and the Medicalization of Ordinary Life (pp. 193-6): Allen Frances, William Morrow & Company (20 May 2013).

Also in Essentials of Psychiatric Diagnosis: Responding to the Challenge of DSM-5 (Chapter 16): Allen Frances, Guilford Press (14 June 2013).

In the June edition of Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorders, Allen Frances, MD, who chaired the Task Force for DSM-IV, discusses his concerns for the loosely defined DSM-5 category, Somatic Symptom Disorder, sets out his suggestions for revising the criteria prior to finalization, as presented to the SSD Work Group chair, in December, and advises clinicians against using the new SSD diagnosis.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23719325

DSM-5 Somatic Symptom Disorder.

Frances A.

Department of Psychiatry, Duke University, Durham, NC.

J Nerv Ment Dis. 2013 Jun;201(6):530-1. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e318294827c. No abstract available.

PMID: 23719325

[PubMed – in process]

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Commentary by Allen Frances, MD, and Suzy Chapman in the May issue of Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. The paper discusses the over-inclusive DSM-5 Somatic Symptom Disorder criteria and the potential implications for diverse patient groups. The paper concludes by advising clinicians not to use the new SSD diagnosis.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23653063

DSM-5 somatic symptom disorder mislabels medical illness as mental disorder.

Allen Frances¹, Suzy Chapman²

1 Department of Psychiatry, Duke University 2 DxRevisionWatch.com

Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2013 May;47(5):483-4. doi: 10.1177/0004867413484525. No abstract available.

PMID: 23653063

[PubMed – in process]

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The April 22 edition of Current Biology published a feature article on DSM-5 by science writer, Michael Gross, Ph.D. The article includes quotes from Allen Frances, MD, and Suzy Chapman on the implications for patients for the application of the new DSM-5 Somatic Symptom Disorder. The article includes concerns for the influence of Somatic Symptom Disorder on proposals for a new ICD category – Bodily Distress Disorder – being field tested for ICD-11 and ICD-11-PHC.

Current Biology 22 April, 2013 Volume 23, Issue 8

Copyright 2013 All rights reserved. Current Biology, Volume  23, Issue  8, R295-R298, 22 April 2013

doi:10.1016/j.cub.2013.04.009

Feature

Has the manual gone mental?

Michael Gross

Full text: http://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(13)00417-X

PDF: http://download.cell.com/current-biology/pdf/PIIS096098221300417X.pdf

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In this opinion piece, published in the BMJ, March 18, Allen Frances, MD, strongly opposes the new Somatic Symptom Disorder, discusses its lack of specificity, data from the field trials and advises clinicians to ignore this new category.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23511949

The new somatic symptom disorder in DSM-5 risks mislabeling many people as mentally ill.

Frances A.

Allen Frances, chair of the DSM-IV task force

BMJ. 2013 Mar 18;346:f1580. doi: 10.1136/bmj.f1580. No abstract available.

PMID: 23511949

[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Further reading

APA Somatic Symptom Disorder Fact Sheet APA DSM-5 Resources

Somatic Chapter Drops Centrality Of Unexplained Medical Symptoms Psychiatric News, Mark Moran, March 1, 2013

Somatic Symptoms Criteria in DSM-5 Improve Diagnosis, Care David J Kupfer, MD, Chair, DSM-5 Task Force, defends the SSD construct, Huffington Post, February 8, 2013

The new somatic symptom disorder in DSM-5 risks mislabeling many people as mentally ill Allen Frances, MD, BMJ 2013;346:f1580 BMJ Press Release

Somatic Symptom Disorder could capture millions more under mental health diagnosis Suzy Chapman, May 26, 2012

Mislabeling Medical Illness As Mental Disorder Allen Frances, MD, Psychology Today, DSM 5 in Distress, December 8, 2012

Why Did DSM 5 Botch Somatic Symptom Disorder? Allen Frances, MD, Psychology Today, Saving Normal, February 6, 2013

New Psych Disorder Could Mislabel Sick as Mentally Ill Susan Donaldson James, ABC News, February 27, 2013

Dimsdale JE. Medically unexplained symptoms: a treacherous foundation for somatoform disorders? Psychiatr Clin North Am 2011;34:511-3. [PMID: 21889675]

Three BMJ letters published in response to Somatic Symptom Disorder commentary

Three letters are published this week in response to Allen Frances’ BMJ commentary on ‘Somatic Symptom Disorder’

Post #237 Shortlink: http://wp.me/pKrrB-2No

On March 19, BMJ published a commentary by Allen Frances, MD, with contribution from Suzy Chapman, in both the print and online editions, strongly opposing the inclusion of ‘Somatic Symptom Disorder’ in the forthcoming DSM-5:

PERSONAL VIEW
The new somatic symptom disorder in DSM-5 risks mislabeling many people as mentally ill
This new condition suggested in the bible of mental health diagnoses lacks specificity, says Allen Frances

The opinion piece was also featured as US Editor’s Choice:

DSM-5 and the rough ride from approval to publication
Edward Davies, US news and features editor, BMJ

BMJ press released the commentary which was picked up by a number of international media sites including UK Times and Deborah Brauser for Medscape Medical News. To date, 31 Rapid Responses have been received.

Three letters (all US respondents) are printed in this week’s BMJ print edition (20 April 2013 Vol 346, Issue 7904). The letters are behind a paywall so I am giving links to the original BMJ Rapid Responses, with the caveat that responses may have been edited for the print edition:

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LETTERS
New somatic symptom disorder in DSM-5

Helping to find the most accurate diagnosis

BMJ 2013; 346 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.f2228 (Published 16 April 2013) BMJ 2013;346:f2228
Joel E Dimsdale, professor of psychiatry emeritus, Michael Sharpe, professor of psychiatry, Francis Creed, professor of psychiatry, DSM-5 Somatic Symptom Disorders work group  BMJ Rapid Response 20 March 2013

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Guilty of diagnostic expansion

BMJ 2013; 346 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.f2254 (Published 16 April 2013) BMJ 2013;346:f2254
James Phillips, psychiatrist, USA  BMJ Rapid Response 25 March 2013

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A step in the wrong direction

BMJ 2013; 346 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.f2233 (Published 16 April 2013) BMJ 2013;346:f2233
Steven A King, chair, DSM-IV and DSM-IV-TR pain disorders committees; Pain Management and Psychiatry, New York  BMJ Rapid Response 28 March 2013

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Further reading:

Somatic Symptom Disorder could capture millions more under mental health diagnosis Suzy Chapman, May 26, 2012
Mislabeling Medical Illness As Mental Disorder Allen Frances, MD, Psychology Today, DSM 5 in Distress, December 8, 2012
Why Did DSM 5 Botch Somatic Symptom Disorder? Allen Frances, MD, Psychology Today, Saving Normal, February 6, 2013
New Psych Disorder Could Mislabel Sick as Mentally Ill Susan Donaldson James, ABC News, February 27, 2013
Dimsdale JE. Medically unexplained symptoms: a treacherous foundation for somatoform disorders? Psychiatr Clin North Am 2011;34:511-3. [PMID: 21889675]

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American Psychiatric Association justifications for SSD:

APA Somatic Symptom Disorder Fact Sheet 
Somatic Chapter Drops Centrality Of Unexplained Medical Symptoms Psychiatric News, Mark Moran, March 1, 2013
Somatic Symptoms Criteria in DSM-5 Improve Diagnosis, Care David J Kupfer, MD, Chair, DSM-5 Task Force, defends the SSD construct, Huffington Post, February 8, 2013

‘Somatic Symptom Disorders in DSM-5: A step forward or a fall back?’ Eleanor Stein MD FRCP(C)

‘Somatic Symptom Disorders in DSM-5: A step forward or a fall back?’ Eleanor Stein MD FRCP(C) slide presentation

Post #233 Shortlink: http://wp.me/pKrrB-2Jt

Eleanor Stein MD FRCP(C) is a psychiatrist in private practice and a Clinical Assistant Professor in the Department of Psychiatry, University of Calgary, Canada.

In March, Dr Stein gave a presentation on the new Somatic Symptom Disorder category (as it had stood at the third draft) to the Alberta Psychiatric Association and has very kindly made her presentation slides available. These are in PDF format so no PowerPoint viewer is required.

Somatic Symptom Disorders in DSM-5 A step forward or a fall back?

Alberta Psychiatric Association March 23, 2013

 Click link for PDF document   SSD Stein Presentation March 2013

The American Psychiatric Association is not affiliated with nor endorses this presentation.

The next edition of the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders unwraps next month; finalized criteria sets are embargoed until May 22.

Until then, you will have to make do with the DSM-5 Table of Contents and Highlights of Changes from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5 and the fact sheets and justifications on this APA webpage.

Erasing the interface between psychiatry and general medicine?

It’s four years, now, since I first started reporting on the deliberations of the Somatic Symptom Disorders Work Group.

The Somatoform Disorders section of DSM-IV has been dismantled and four rarely used disorders replaced for DSM-5 by a single new diagnosis, ‘Somatic Symptom Disorder’ (SSD).

From May, everyone with chronic medical illness or long-term pain becomes a potential candidate for this new mental disorder label.

Out go DSM-IV’s rigorous criteria sets and the requirement for multiple symptoms to be medically unexplained; in comes a far looser definition that doesn’t distinguish between ‘medically unexplained’ somatic symptoms or symptoms in association with diagnosed medical disease.

You can read APA’s rationale for the change here and here and Task Force Chair, David J Kupfer, defending the SSD work group’s decisions here, on Huffington Post.

For DSM-5, the SSD criteria set focuses on the psychological impact of persistent, distressing bodily symptoms on the patient’s thoughts, feelings and behaviours and the degree to which their response is perceived to be ‘disproportionate’ or ‘excessive’ – irrespective of symptom etiology.

Patients with common diseases like cancer, angina, diabetes, CVD, or multiple sclerosis; with long-term pain; with chronic illnesses and conditions like irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, CFS, interstitial cystitis, chronic Lyme disease, or persistent, somatic symptoms of unclear etiology may qualify for an additional mental disorder diagnosis if the clinician considers the patient also meets the criteria for ‘Somatic Symptom Disorder’ and may benefit from treatment  – psychotropic drugs, CBT or other therapies to modify ‘faulty illness beliefs’ and ‘maladaptive’ coping strategies.

“[The SSD Work Group’s] framework will allow a diagnosis of somatic symptom disorder in addition to a general medical condition*, whether the latter is a well-recognized organic disease or a functional somatic syndrome such as irritable bowel syndrome or chronic fatigue syndrome” [1]

“These disorders typically present first in non-psychiatric settings and somatic symptom disorders can accompany diverse general medical as well as psychiatric diagnoses. Having somatic symptoms of unclear etiology is not in itself sufficient to make this diagnosis. Some patients, for instance with irritable bowel syndrome or fibromyalgia would not necessarily qualify for a somatic symptom disorder diagnosis. Conversely, having somatic symptoms of an established disorder (e.g. diabetes) does not exclude these diagnoses if the criteria are otherwise met.

“The symptoms may or may not be associated with a known medical condition. Symptoms may be specific (such as localized pain) or relatively non-specific (e.g. fatigue). The symptoms sometimes represent normal bodily sensations (e.g., orthostatic dizziness), or discomfort that does not generally signify serious disease.” [2]

*According to page 1 of APA document Highlights of Changes from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5, under the heading “Terminology,” the document states: ‘The phrase “general medical condition” is replaced in DSM-5 with “another medical condition” where relevant across all disorders.’ Without better context for this change of terminology, it’s not clear what the implications might be or whether this might represent evidence of intent to blur the boundary between psychiatric and general medical conditions, or the colonization of general medicine. (If any readers are aware of earlier references to this change of terminology for DSM-5 and/or APA’s rationale, I should be pleased to receive information, as I can find no reference prior to January 21.)

Psychiatric creep

This new category will potentially result in a ‘bolt-on’ mental disorder diagnosis being applied to all chronic illnesses and medical conditions if the clinician decides the patient’s response to distressing bodily symptoms is ‘excessive’ or their coping strategies are ‘maladaptive,’ or that the patient is ‘catastrophising,’ or displaying ‘fear avoidance’ or is overly preoccupied with their symptoms (or in the case of a parent, a child’s symptoms).

If the practitioner feels the patient is spending too much time on the internet researching data, symptoms and treatments, or that their lives have become dominated by ‘illness worries,’ they may be vulnerable to dual-diagnosis with a mental disorder.

Patients with chronic, multiple bodily symptoms due to rare conditions or multi-system diseases like Behçet’s syndrome or Systemic lupus, which may take several years to diagnose, may be vulnerable to misdiagnosis with a mental disorder and premature case closure.

Families caring for children with chronic illness may be placed at risk of wrongful accusation of ‘over-involvement’ or of being ‘excessively concerned’ with a child’s symptoms or of colluding in the maintenance of ‘sick role behaviour.’

Just one distressing symptom for at least six months duration plus one of the three ‘B type’ criteria is all that is required to tick the box for a diagnosis of a mental health disorder – cancer + SSD; angina + SSD; asthma + SSD; COPD + SSD; diabetes + SSD; IBS + SSD; CFS + SSD…

15% of the ‘diagnosed illness’ study group (cancer and coronary disease) met the criteria for an additional diagnosis of SSD in the DSM-5 field trials.

In the ‘functional somatic’ study group (irritable bowel syndrome or chronic widespread pain), 26% were coded with SSD.

The criteria, as they stood at the third draft, caught 7% of the ‘healthy’ field trial control group.

The Somatic Symptom Disorder construct represents a significant change to the current DSM-IV-TR categories.

There is no substantial body of evidence to support the validity, reliability and safety of the application of SSD in adults or children nor any published data on projected prevalence rates across the entire disease spectrum or on the potential clinical and economic burdens for providers and payers – yet the SSD Work Group, Task Force and APA Board of Trustees have barrelled this through.

In February, SSD Work Group Chair, Joel E Dimsdale, MD, told journalist, Susan Donaldson James, for ABC News:

 “…If it doesn’t work, we’ll fix it in the DSM-5.1 or DSM-6.”

APA says there will be opportunities to reassess and revise DSM-5′s new disorders, post publication, and that it intends to start work on a DSM-5.1 release. Advocates and patient groups are not reassured by APA’s ‘publish first – patch later’ approach: is this science or Windows 7?

This section of DSM-5, seemingly overlooked by clinicians in the field, both within and outside psychiatry and psychosomatics, and by medico-legal and disability specialists demands scrutiny and investigation.

The SSD construct is now influencing emerging proposals and field testing for three severities of a new category for ICD-11, Bodily Distress Disorder, proposed to replace half a dozen existing ICD-10 Somatoform Disorders [3] [4].

As Dr James Brennan wrote in a recent BMJ Rapid Response:

“…All human distress occurs within the context of complicated factors (biological, psychological, emotional, interpersonal, social etc) and it is this context that demands our assessment and understanding, not reducing it all to a subjective judgment by a clinician as to whether a particular emotion is ‘excessive’ or ‘disproportionate’. How much distress ought a cancer patient to have? What democratic authority gives any of us the right to say what is excessive or proportionate about another person’s thoughts, emotions and behaviour? The SSD criteria in this regard are dangerously loose and over-inclusive.”

References

1 Dimsdale J, Creed F. DSM-V Workgroup on Somatic Symptom Disorders: the proposed diagnosis of somatic symptom disorders in DSM-V to replace somatoform disorders in DSM-IV – a preliminary report. J Psychosom Res 2009;66:473-6.
2 DSM-5 Somatic Symptom Disorders Work Group Disorder Descriptions PDF document, published May 4, 2011 for the second stakeholder review.
3 Creed F, Gureje O. Emerging themes in the revision of the classification of somatoform disorders. Int Rev Psychiatry 2012;24:556-67.
4 Goldberg DP. Comparison between ICD and DSM diagnostic systems for mental disorders. In: Sorel E, ed. 21st century global mental health. Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2012:37-53.

 

Further reading

APA Somatic Symptom Disorder Fact Sheet

Somatic Chapter Drops Centrality Of Unexplained Medical Symptoms Psychiatric News, Mark Moran, March 1, 2013

Somatic Symptoms Criteria in DSM-5 Improve Diagnosis, Care David J Kupfer, MD, Chair, DSM-5 Task Force, defends the SSD construct, Huffington Post, February 8, 2013

The new somatic symptom disorder in DSM-5 risks mislabeling many people as mentally ill Allen Frances, MD, BMJ 2013;346:f1580 BMJ Press Release

Somatic Symptom Disorder could capture millions more under mental health diagnosis Suzy Chapman, May 26, 2012

Mislabeling Medical Illness As Mental Disorder Allen Frances, MD, Psychology Today, DSM 5 in Distress, December 8, 2012

Why Did DSM 5 Botch Somatic Symptom Disorder? Allen Frances, MD, Psychology Today, Saving Normal, February 6, 2013

New Psych Disorder Could Mislabel Sick as Mentally Ill Susan Donaldson James, ABC News, February 27, 2013

Dimsdale JE. Medically unexplained symptoms: a treacherous foundation for somatoform disorders? Psychiatr Clin North Am 2011;34:511-3. [PMID: 21889675]

APA website: New documents and videos on ‘Somatic Symptom Disorder; article: Psychiatric News

APA website: New documents and videos on ‘Somatic Symptom Disorder; article: Psychiatric News

Post #228 Shortlink: http://wp.me/pKrrB-2Gi

Updates at March 7

Article in Die Psychiatrie

Somatic Symptom Disorders: a new approach in DSM-5

J. E. Dimsdale, University of California, San Diego, DSM Task force, Somatic Symptoms Work Group

Die Psychiatrie 2013; 10: 30–32

Summary

Following a brief historic discourse, problems with the current use and concepts the of somatoform disorders are described. The rationale for substituting the term “somatoform” with “somatic symptom” in DSM5 is explained and the new classification criteria for the group of “somatic symptom related disorders” are described, which include severity ratings.

A special aspect is that “Illness anxiety disorder” is introduced as a new diagnostic entity in DSM-5.

“Störung mit somatischen Symptomen”: ein neuer Ansatz in DSM-5

Zusammenfassung

Nach einem kurzen historischen Diskurs werden die Problembereiche und die Konzepte der somatoformen Störungen erläutert. Das Rational für einen Ersatz der “somatoformen” Störung durch eine “Störung mit somatischen Symptomen” in DSM5 wird erläutert. Die Klassifikationskriterien der Gruppe der “Störungen mit somatischen Symptomen” wird dargestellt.

Ein besonderer Aspekt ist die Einführung einer “Erkrankungsangst-Störung” in DSM-5.

Full paper can be downloaded here: http://bit.ly/W7filu

Doug Bremner, MD, comments on ‘Somatic Symptom Disorder’ here:

DSM-5 Somatic Symptoms Disorder is Going to Make Us All Mental

Doug Bremner | February 12, 2013

 

A number of new documents and short videos on ‘Somatic Symptom Disorder’ have been published on the APA’s new webpages, plus an article in Psychiatric News, published on March 1.

These are followed by recent, mainstream media coverage of concerns for all illness groups for the implications of misdiagnosis with ‘Somatic Symptom Disorder’ or for an additional diagnosis of ‘Somatic Symptom Disorder.’

http://www.psychiatry.org/practice/dsm/dsm5/dsm-5

Fact Sheet: Click link for PDF document   Somatic Symptom Disorder

Videos:

Joel E Dimsdale, Chair, DSM-5 Somatic Symptom Disorders Work Group

What is Somatic Symptom Disorder?

http://www.psychiatry.org/practice/dsm/dsm5/dsm-5-video-series-somatic-symptom-disorder

What was the rationale behind changes to Somatic Symptom Disorder?

http://www.psychiatry.org/practice/dsm/dsm5/dsm-5-video-series-changes-to-somatic-symptoms

Will Somatic Symptom Disorder result in the missing of other medical problems?

http://www.psychiatry.org/practice/dsm/dsm5/dsm-5-video-series-somatic-symptom-disorder-and-other-medical-problems

Article: Psychiatric News (organ of the APA):

http://psychnews.psychiatryonline.org/newsArticle.aspx?articleid=1659603

Psychiatric News | March 01, 2013
Volume 48 Number 5 page 7-7
10.1176/appi.pn.2013.3a26
American Psychiatric Association
Professional News

Somatic Chapter Drops Centrality Of Unexplained Medical Symptoms

Mark Moran

“…But Joel Dimsdale, M.D., chair of the Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders Work Group, emphasized that the most important change overall in this set of disorders is removal of the centrality of medically unexplained symptoms. “That was a defining characteristic of these disorders in DSM-IV, but we believe it was unhelpful and promoted a mind-body dualism that is hard to justify,” he told Psychiatric News.

So, for instance, the diagnosis of somatization disorder in DSM-IV was based on a long and complex symptom count of medically unexplained symptoms. DSM-5 criteria eliminate that requirement and recognize that individuals who meet criteria for somatic symptom disorder—the new designation, marked by disproportionate thoughts, feelings, and behaviors related to somatic symptoms—may or may not have a medically diagnosed condition.

Hypochondriasis has been eliminated; most individuals who would previously have been diagnosed with hypochondriasis have significant somatic symptoms in addition to their high health anxiety and should receive a DSM-5 diagnosis of somatic symptom disorder. Those with high health anxiety without somatic symptoms should receive a diagnosis of illness anxiety disorder…

Read full article here

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Related material

Dimsdale JE. Medically Unexplained Symptoms: A Treacherous Foundation for Somatoform Disorders? Psychiatr Clin North Am, Volume 34, Issue 3, Pages 511-513 [PUBMED 21889675]

Overlapping Conditions Alliance (OCA)

“Members of the Overlapping Conditions Alliance (OCA) produced a white paper, Chronic Pain in Women: Neglect, Dismissal and Discrimination, to promote awareness and research of neglected and poorly understood chronic pain conditions that affect millions of American women. This report, which can be viewed and downloaded below, includes detailed policy recommendations to further these goals.” (Report 2010 and Report 2011)

http://www.endwomenspain.org/resources/policy-analysis-recommendations

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Recent mainstream media coverage of the SSD issue

ABC News Radio:
Guidelines for Diagnosing Psychiatric Disorder May Overlook Physical Illnesses

ABC News:
New Psych Disorder Could Mislabel Sick as Mentally Ill

Canada.com and syndicated to a number of other Canadian media sites:
New “catch all” psychiatric disorder could label people who worry about their health as mentally ill

Fox News Health:
Does somatic symptom disorder really exist?

DSM-5 Task Force Chair, David J Kupfer, MD, defends the SSD construct on Huffington Post (but provides no answers to my questions):

David J. Kupfer, M.D. Chair, DSM-5 Task Force

Somatic Symptoms Criteria in DSM-5 Improve Diagnosis, Care

ICD-11 Beta draft and Bodily Distress Disorders; Per Fink and Bodily Distress Syndrome: Parts One and Two

ICD-11 Beta draft and Bodily Distress Disorders; Per Fink and Bodily Distress Syndrome Parts One and Two

Post #222 Shortlink: http://wp.me/pKrrB-2Dz

Caveats: The ICD-11 Beta drafting platform is not a static document: it is a work in progress, subject to daily edits and revisions, to field test evaluation and to approval by Topic Advisory Group Managing Editors, the ICD Revision Steering Group and WHO classification experts. The current draft may differ to the information in this report.

Part One

On January 6, I posted a brief update on proposals for the revision of ICD-10’s Somatoform Disorders based on what can be seen in the public version of the ICD-11 Beta drafting platform and on a book chapter by Professor, Sir David Goldberg. [1]

Professor Goldberg chairs the working group for revision of the mental health chapter of ICD-1o-PHC, the abridged, primary care version of ICD-10.

For the revision of ICD-10’s Somatoform Disorders sections for ICD-11, a WHO Expert Working Group on Somatic Distress and Dissociative Disorders has been assembled.

Professor Francis Creed (also a member of the DSM-5 Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders Work Group) is a member of this WHO working group, which is chaired by Professor Oye Gureje.

An April 2011 announcement by Stony Brook Medical Center states that Dr Joan E. Broderick, PhD had been appointed to the WHO Expert Working Group on Somatic Distress and Dissociative Disorders and that the first meeting of the group (said to consist of 17 international behavioral health professionals) was expected to be held in June 2011, in Madrid.

WHO has not published a list of  members of this working group or any progress reports and the names and affiliations of the 14 other members are unknown, so I am unable to confirm whether Professor Per Fink is a member of the group, which reports to the International Advisory Group for the Revision of ICD-10 Mental and Behavioural Disorders.

ICD-11 and Bodily Distress Disorders

ICD-11 is currently scheduled for completion in 2015/16. When viewing the public version of the Beta drafting platform please bear in mind the ICD-11 Revision Caveats: that the Beta draft is a work in progress, updated daily, is incomplete, may contain errors and is subject to change; not all proposals may be approved by the ICD-11 Revision Steering Committee or WHO classification experts, or retained following analysis of ICD-11 and ICD-11-PHC field trials.

The Bodily Distress Disorders section of ICD-11 Beta draft Chapter 5 can be found here:

Foundation View: http://apps.who.int/classifications/icd11/browse/f/en#/http%3a%2f%2fid.who.int%2ficd%2fentity%2f1472866636
Linearization View: http://apps.who.int/classifications/icd11/browse/l-m/en#/http%3a%2f%2fid.who.int%2ficd%2fentity%2f1472866636

As the ICD-11 Beta drafting platform stands at the time of compiling this report, the existing ICD-10 Somatoform Disorders are proposed to be subsumed under or replaced by Bodily Distress Disorders, and Psychological and behavioural factors associated with disorders or diseases classified elsewhere.

The following proposed ICD-11 categories are listed as child categories under parent term, Bodily Distress Disorders, and Psychological and behavioural factors associated with disorders or diseases classified elsewhere:

EC5 Mild bodily distress disorder
EC6 Moderate bodily distress disorder
EC7 Severe bodily distress disorder
EC8 Psychological and behavioural factors associated with disorders or diseases classified elsewhere

No Definition or any other Content Model parameters have been populated for the proposed categories EC5, EC6 and EC7, which are new entities to ICD. (EC8 is a legacy category from ICD-10.)

Note that the sorting codes assigned to categories are subject to frequent change as chapters are reorganized.

From the information currently displaying in the Beta draft, it is not possible to determine:

• how ICD-11 proposes to define Bodily Distress Disorders;

• what diagnostic criteria are being proposed;

whether diagnostic criteria would be based on a requirement for excessive or disproportionate psychological and behavioral characteristics in response to distressing somatic symptoms, such as illness anxiety, symptom focusing, catastrophising, maladaptive coping strategies, avoidance behavior or misattribution; or based on somatic symptom counts, or specific symptom clusters, or number of bodily systems affected, or a combination of these;

how the three Severity Specifiers: Mild, Moderate and Severe would be categorized;

• how the three Severities would be assessed for within primary and secondary care;

whether ICD-11’s proposed Bodily Distress Disorder construct is intended to mirror or incorporate DSM-5’s Somatic Symptom Disorder (SSD) construct, in line with ICD-11/DSM-5 harmonization, or

whether it is intended to mirror or incorporate Per Fink’s Bodily Distress Syndrome (BDS) construct, or to combine elements from both;

whether the Bodily Distress Disorder construct is proposed only to be applied to patients with distressing ‘medically unexplained somatic symptoms’ (MUS), or the so-called ‘Functional somatic syndromes’ (FSS), if the patient is considered to also meet the BDD criteria, or

whether it is proposed to be inclusive of patients with distressing somatic symptoms in the presence of diagnosed illness and general medical conditions, if the patient is considered to also meet the criteria;

• whether the Bodily Distress Disorder construct is proposed to be inclusive of parents or caregivers perceived as encouraging maintenance of sick role behavior or over-involved.

whether the Bodily Distress Disorder construct is proposed to be inclusive of children;

whether it is proposed that all or selected of the following: Neurasthenia and Fatigue syndrome (F48.0), Chronic fatigue syndrome (indexed to G93.3 in ICD-10; classified in ICD-11 Beta draft as an ICD Title term in Chapter 6: Diseases of the nervous system), IBS (K58), and Fibromyalgia (M79.7) should be reclassified under Bodily Distress Disorders;

• whether the Bodily Distress Disorder construct is proposed to subsume ICD-10’s Hypochondriacal disorder with somatic symptoms or incorporate this entity under Illness Anxiety Disorder for ICD-11.

(For ICD-11, ICD-10’s Hypochondriacal disorder [F45.2] is currently proposed to be renamed to Illness Anxiety Disorder and located underANXIETY AND FEAR-RELATED DISORDERS.)

 • what ICD-11 proposes to do with ICD-10’s Neurasthenia;

(ICD-10’s Chapter V Neurasthenia [F48.0] is no longer listed in the public version of the ICD-11 Beta draft. For ICD-11-PHC, the primary care version of ICD-11, the proposal is for the term Neurasthenia to be eliminated. Since terms used in ICD-11-PHC require corresponding terms in the main classification, the intention may be to eliminate Neurasthenia from the main version, or subsume under another term.) [2]

All that can be determined from the Beta draft is that these earlier ICD-11 Beta draft Somatoform Disorders categories appear proposed to be subsumed under or replaced with the new BDD categories, EC5, EC6 and EC7, set out above:

Somatization disorder [F45.0 in ICD-10]
Undifferentiated somatoform disorder [F45.1 in ICD-10]
Somatoform autonomic dysfunction [F45.3 in ICD-10]
Persistent somatoform pain disorder [F45.4 in ICD-10]
    > Persistent somatoform pain disorder
    > Chronic pain disorder with somatic and psychological factors [Not in ICD-10]
Other somatoform disorders [F45.8 in ICD-10]
Somatoform disorder, unspecified [F45.9 in ICD-10]

I have previously reported that for ICD-11-PHC, the proposal, last year, was for a new disorder section called Bodily distress disorders, under which would sit new category Bodily stress [sic] syndrome.

This category is proposed for the ICD-11 primary care version to include “milder somatic symptom disorders” as well as “DSM-5’s Complex somatic symptom disorder” and would replace “medically unexplained somatic symptoms.” [2]

In a future post (Part Three of this report), I shall be discussing emerging proposals for the ICD-11 construct, Bodily Distress Disorders, which may serve to fill in some of the gaps.

In the meantime, since it is unclear whether and to what extent the ICD-11 Bodily Distress Disorders category is proposed to mirror or incorporate the Bodily Distress Syndrome construct developed by Per Fink et al, Aarhus, Denmark, I am providing some material on Bodily Distress Syndrome in Part Two

Slide presentation: Per Fink: Somatoform disorders – functional somatic syndromes – Bodily distress syndrome (EACLPP lecture, June 2012)

Slide presentation: Per Fink: Somatoform disorders – functional somatic syndromes – Bodily distress syndrome (EACLPP lecture, June 2012)

Post #197 Shortlink: http://wp.me/pKrrB-2pN

Slide presentation: Per Fink: Somatoform disorders – functional somatic syndromes – Bodily distress syndrome (EACLPP lecture, June 2012)

23 slides in PDF format (i.e. no PowerPoint viewer required)

       EACLPP Per Fink Somatoform Disorders

Aarhus University Hospital

The Research Clinic for Functional Disorders and Psychosomatics

Somatoform disorders – functional somatic syndromes – Bodily distress syndrome.

Need for care and organisation of care in an international perspective – EACLPP Lecture

Prof. Per Fink

MD, Ph.D, Dr.Med.Sc.

www.functionaldisorders.dk

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June 2012 EACLPP Annual Conference*

*The European Association of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry and Psychosomatics (EACLPP) and the European Network of Psychosomatic Medicine (ECPR) have recently merged the two associations to create a new society – the European Association of Psychosomatic Medicine (EAPM).

The Annual Scientific Meeting of the European Association for Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry and Psychosomatics (EACLPP) and the European Conference on Psychosomatic Research (ECPR) was entitled

“Towards a New Agenda: Cross-disciplinary Approach to Psychosomatic Medicine”

The conference was held in the city of Aarhus, Denmark, on 27 – 30 June 2012.

For last year’s conference, a report was published. I will post any report coming out of this year’s conference.

A Conference Abstract document be accessed here:

http://www.eaclpp-ecpr2012.dk/Home/DownloadOral

Selected Extracts:

Page 61 Nagel A

Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf & Schön Klinik Hamburg-Eilbek, Germany, Voigt K Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Hamburg- Eppendorf & Schön Klinik Hamburg-Eilbek, Germany

Diagnostic validity of Complex Somatic Symptom Disorder: Which combination of psychological criteria is best suited for DSM-5?

Page 17 Budtz-Lilly A

The Research Unit for General Practice, School of Public Health, Aarhus University, Denmark

Bodily Distress Syndrome: A new diagnosis for functional disorders in primary care

Page 19 Escobar J

Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ, USA

An Update on DSM-5

Page 32 Fjorback L

Aarhus University Hospital, Research Clinic for Functional Disorders and Psychosomatics

Mindfulness Therapy for Bodily Distress Syndrome – randomized trial, one-year follow-up, active control

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Notes on Fink et al and Bodily Distress Syndrome (BDS)

According to Fink and colleagues, Bodily Distress Syndrome is a unifying diagnosis that encompasses somatization disorder, so-called “medically unexplained symptoms” (MUS), fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue syndrome and some other conditions which they consider to be closely related, with a likely shared underlying aetiology.

See paper: Fink P, Schröder A. One single diagnosis, bodily distress syndrome, succeeded to capture 10 diagnostic categories of functional somatic syndromes and somatoform disorders J Psychosom Res. 2010 May;68(5):415-26.

See article: Per Fink,a Marianne Rosendal b Understanding and Management of Functional Somatic Symptoms in Primary Care: The Concept of Functional Somatic Symptoms

aResearch Clinic for Functional Disorders and Psychosomatics, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark
bResearch Unit for General Practice, University of Aarhus, Denmark

See Per Fink’s clinical trial for BDS: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01518647

See BDS clinician/patient manual: Specialised Treatment for Severe Bodily Distress Syndromes (STreSS)

According to a June 2012 EACLPP Conference Abstract, the concept of Bodily Distress Syndrome (BDS) “is expected to be integrated into the upcoming versions of classification systems.”

The potential for inclusion of Bodily Distress Disorder/Syndrome within ICD-11 could have significant implications for patients, globally, who are diagnosed with one of the so-called “functional somatic syndromes.” These proposals require very close monitoring by patient organizations in those countries that will be implementing ICD-11, post 2015.

Research and clinical professionals, patient organizations and their professional advisors can register now with ICD Revision for input into the ongoing drafting process and urge organizations and professionals to engage in this process.

Abstracts, oral presentations, EACLPP Conference: 27 – 30 June 2012, Aarhus University Campus, Aarhus – Denmark

http://www.eaclpp-ecpr2012.dk/Home/DownloadOral

Extracts

Page 17 Budtz-Lilly A

The Research Unit for General Practice, School of Public Health, Aarhus University, Denmark

Bodily Distress Syndrome: A new diagnosis for functional disorders in primary care

Aim: Medically unexplained or functional symptoms and disorders are common in primary care. Empirical research has proposed specific criteria for a new unifying diagnosis for functional disorders and syndromes: Bodily Distress Syndrome (BDS). This new concept is expected to be integrated into the upcoming versions of classification systems.

And from Page 31 of the Conference Abstracts:

Fjorback L

Aarhus University Hospital, Research Clinic for Functional Disorders and Psychosomatics

Mindfulness Therapy for Bodily Distress Syndrome – randomized trial, one-year follow-up, active control

Objective: To conduct a feasibility and efficacy trial of mindfulness therapy in somatization disorder and functional somatic syndromes such as fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, and chronic fatigue syndrome, defined as bodily distress syndrome (BDS)…

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References and related material:

1] Patients with medically unexplained symptoms and somatisation – a challenge for European health care systems: A white paper of the EACLPP Medically Unexplained Symptoms study group by Peter Henningsen and Francis Creed: http://www.eaclpp.org/working_groups.html
http://www.eaclpp.org/documents/Patientswithmedicallyunexplainedsymptomsandsomatisation_000.doc

2] Creed F, Guthrie E, Fink P, Henningsen P, Rief W, Sharpe M and White. Is there a better term than “Medically unexplained symptoms”? J Psychosom Res: Volume 68, Issue 1, Pages 5-8 January 2010) discusses the deliberations of the EACLPP MUS study group. Editorial also includes references to the DSM and ICD revision processes: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20004295

3] Fink P, Schröder A. One single diagnosis, bodily distress syndrome, succeeded to capture 10 diagnostic categories of functional somatic syndromes and somatoform disorders. J Psychosom Res. 2010 May;68(5):415-26. The Research Clinic for Functional Disorders and Psychosomatics, Aarhus University Hospital, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20403500

Fink P, Toft T, Hansen MS, Ørnbøl E, Olesen F. Symptoms and syndromes of bodily distress: an exploratory study of 978 internal medical, neurological, and primary care patients. Psychosom Med. 2007 Jan;69(1):30-9.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17244846
Full text: http://www.psychosomaticmedicine.org/content/69/1/30.full

Fink P, Rosendal, M. Recent developments in the understanding and management of functional somatic symptoms in primary care. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 2008, 21:182–188

Rosendal M, Fink P, Falkoe E, Schou Hansen H, Olesen F. Improving the Classification of Medically Unexplained Symptoms in Primary Care. Eur. J. Psychiat. v.21 n.1 Zaragoza ene.-mar. 2007
Text: http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0213-61632007000100004
PDF: http://scielo.isciii.es/pdf/ejpen/v21n1/improv3.pdf

4] EURASMUS  http://eurasmus.net/
The multidisciplinary European Research Association for Somatisation and Medically Unexplained Symptoms(EURASMUS) was formed to study the genetic, psychological and physiological mechanisms underlying bodily distress. Co-convenors: Francis Creed, Peter Henningsen

5] Notes from EACLPP Workgroup meeting in Budapest July 2011

EACLPP_WG_Medically_Unexplained_Symptoms_Budapest_2011

Report from Working group meeting on MUS/somatisation/bodily distress, Budapest July 1st 2011

“…We should find out whether the WHO group for classification of somatic distress and dissociative disorders will provide a better diagnostic system for these disorders.”

6] Article: ‘Heartsinks’ and weird symptoms by Tony Dowell, June 15, 2011.

Article Table: Functional somatic syndromes according to medical speciality:
http://www.nzdoctor.co.nz/media/671495/heartsinks.pdf

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